Please wait a minute...
心理学报  2019, Vol. 51 Issue (9): 969-981    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00969
  研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
1. 山东师范大学心理学院, 济南 250358
2. 济南大学教育与心理科学学院, 济南 250022
Preview processing of between words and within words in Chinese reading: No word highlighting effect
GUAN Yiyun1,SONG Xini1,ZHENG Yuwei2,ZHANG Yingliang1,CUI Lei1()
1. School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
2. School of Education and Psychological Science, Jinan University, Jinan 250022, China
全文: PDF(923 KB)   HTML 评审附件 (1 KB) 
输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)       背景资料

为了考察词语的属性特征对预视加工的影响, 实验操纵注视字与预视字是否属于一个语言单元, 利用眼动轨迹记录法并结合边界范式以探讨其对预视效应的影响。此外, 考察了词边界信息对词间词和词内词预视加工的影响。结果显示, 词内词的预视效应大于词间词, 词间阴影、非词阴影条件下的预视效应和正常条件之间没有差异。说明阴影提供的词边界对词间词和词内词的预视加工无影响, 支持词切分和词汇识别模型, 即词切分和词汇识别是同时进行的。

E-mail Alert
关键词 词边界词间词词内词预视加工词切分    

In the present study, readers’ eye movements were recorded to investigate the influence of word highlighting information on the preview processing of between-words and within-words.

Most studies on preview effects have found that the size of the preview effects is 30~50 ms. Hy?n? et al. (2004) examined parafoveal processing of the end lexeme of a long Finnish compound while the beginning lexeme of the compound was fixated. And the results found 80ms preview effect which was more pronounced than previous literatures. The larger preview benefit may have been due to the fact that the preview word is part of one larger linguistic unit (within-words); however, in previous experiments, the preview word and the current fixated word belong to different words (between-words). Consequently, researchers speculated that within-words might induce larger preview effect than that of between-words. Some researchers used compound words (within-words) and phrases (between-words) to further explore this issue and they found that there were no differences between within-words and between-words in preview effects. The results cannot exclude the possible explanation that larger preview effect for within-words is caused by the higher syntactic expectations of nouns comes from adjectives in phrases inducing larger preview effect and then counterbalances the possible differences between the two kinds of words. The present study adopted the boundary paradigm to probe the preview processing differences between within-words and between-words. In the present study, the first character of a two-character compounds (between-words) and the second character of a two-character compounds (within-words) was manipulated to be presented normally or replaced by a pseudo-character for previews. Moreover, word highlighting sentence and non-word highlighting sentence were introduced to examine whether the word boundary information could exert different influences on the preview processing of between-words and within-words. Marking word boundary by word highlighting has its unique advantages. Most of all, compared with word spaces, word highlighting can not only keep the same sentence length meanwhile providing the word boundary information but also control the same word lateral masking on different conditions.

Firstly, the results indicated that the preview effect for between-word was smaller than that of within-word. The results were consistent with the results of Hy?n? et al. (2004), which showed that the morphological information of target word could impact on preview processing. Secondly, we found that there were no differences among normal condition, highlighting condition and non-word highlighting condition. Even so, we did not found the significant influences of word boundary demarcation for preview processing, the possible benefit effect of word boundary still could not be ruled out thoroughly. As Bai et al. (2008) pointed out that readers are familiar with the text without any word boundary signals in normal reading; consequently, the null effect between normal and word boundary text may show a priming effect on word boundary condition, which is the one readers are not familiar with. Thirdly, the results showed that word boundary information had similar effects on within-words and between-words.

Results of the present study indicated that word morphological information could affect its preview processing; however, word boundary information do not necessarily facilitate preview processing for both between-words and within-words. The possible explanation may be that word segmentation and word recognition occur simultaneously. These results are consistent with the model of word segmentation and word recognition.

Key wordsword boundary    between words    within words    preview processing    word segmentation
收稿日期: 2018-03-27      出版日期: 2019-07-24
中图分类号:  B482  
基金资助:* 教育部人文社科项目(18YJC190001);山东省社科优势学科项目资助(19BYSJ46)
通讯作者: 崔磊     E-mail:
关宜韫, 宋悉妮, 郑玉玮, 张颖靓, 崔磊. (2019). 中文词间词和词内词预视加工的差异:词间阴影的作用. 心理学报, 51(9): 969-981.
GUAN Yiyun, SONG Xini, ZHENG Yuwei, ZHANG Yingliang, CUI Lei. (2019). Preview processing of between words and within words in Chinese reading: No word highlighting effect. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(9), 969-981.
链接本文:      或
1 Bai X., Yan G., Liversedge S. P., Zang C., & Rayner K . ( 2008). Reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.34( 5), 1277-1287.
2 Cui L., Drieghe D., Bai X., Yan G., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2014). Parafoveal preview benefit in unspaced and spaced Chinese reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(11),2172-2188.
3 Cui L., Drieghe D., Yan G., Bai X ., Chi, H. & Liversedge, S. P. ( 2013). Parafoveal processing across different lexical constituents in Chinese reading.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66,403-416.
4 Drieghe D., Brysbaert M., & Desmet T . ( 2005). Parafoveal-on-foveal effects on eye movements in text reading: Does an extra space make a difference. Vision Research, 45(13),1693-1706.
5 Drieghe D., Cui L., Yan G., Bai X., Chi H., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2017). The morphosyntactic structure of compound words influences parafoveal processing in Chinese reading.. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71(1),1-28.
6 Drieghe D., Fitzsimmons G., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2017). Parafoveal preview effects in reading unspaced text. Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance.43( 10), 1701-1716.
7 Dimigen O., Kliegl R., & Sommer W . ( 2012). Trans-saccadic parafoveal preview benefits in fluent reading: A study with fixation-related brain potentials. Neuroimage.62( 1), 381-393.
8 Engbert R., Nuthmann A., Richter E. M., & Kliegl R . ( 2005). SWIFT: A dynamical model of saccade generation during reading.Psychological Review, 112,777-813.
9 Hoosain R. ( 1992). Psychological reality of the word in Chinese. In H.-C. Chen & O.J.L. Tzeng (Eds.), Language processing in Chinese (pp. 111-130). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland.
10 Hy?n? J., ( 1995). Do irregular letter combinations attract readers' attention? Evidence from fixation locations in words.[J] ournal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance.21( 1), 68-81.
11 Hy?n? J., Bertram R., & Pollatsek A . ( 2004). Are long compound words identified serially via their constituents? Evidence from an eye movement-contingent display change study. Memory & Cognition, 32(4),523-532.
12 Juhasz B. J., Pollatsek A., Hy?n? J., Drieghe D., & Rayner K . ( 2009). Parafoveal processing within and between words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(7),1356-1376.
13 Li X., Rayner K., & Cave K. R . ( 2009). On the segmentation of Chinese words during reading. Cognitive Psychology, 58(4),525-552.
14 Li N., Wang S., Mo L., & Kliegl R . ( 2017). Contextual constraint and preview time modulate the semantic preview effect: Evidence from chinese sentence reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71(1),1-32.
15 Liu Y., Reichle E. D., & Li X . ( 2015). Parafoveal processing affects outgoing saccade length during the reading of Chinese. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning.Memory, and Cognition, 41(4),1229-1236.
16 Liu Y., Reichle E. D., & Li X . ( 2016). The effect of word frequency and parafoveal preview on saccade length during the reading of Chinese. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42(7),1008-1025.
17 Morris R. K., Rayner K., & Pollatsek A . ( 1990). Eye movement guidance in reading: The role of parafoveal letter and space information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16(2),268-281.
18 Perea M., &Acha J. , ( 2009). Space information is important for reading. Vision Research, 49(15),1994-2000.
19 Perea M., Tejero P., & Winskel H . ( 2015). Can colours be used to segment words when reading?. Acta Psychologica, 159,8-13.
20 Pollatsek A. & Rayner K. , ( 1982). Eye movement control in reading: The role of word boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8(6),817-833.
21 Rayner K. ( 1975). The perceptual span and peripheral cues in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 7(1),65-81.
22 Rayner K. ( 1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3),372-422.
23 Rayner K. ( 2009). The thirty fifth Sir Frederick Bartlett lecture: Eye movements and attention in reading,scene perception, and visual search.. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62,1457-1506.
24 Rayner K., Ashby J., Pollatsek A., & Reichle E. D . ( 2004). The effects of frequency and predictability on eye fixations in reading: Lmplications for the E-Z Reader model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30(4),720-732.
25 Rayner K., Balota D. A., & Pollatsek A . ( 1986). Against parafoveal semantic preprocessing during eye fixations in reading. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40(4),473-483.
26 Rayner K., Schotter E. R., & Drieghe D . ( 2014). Lack of semantic parafoveal preview benefit in reading revisited. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(4),1067-1072.
27 Rayner K., & Schotter E.R, . ( 2014). Semantic preview benefit in reading English: The effect of initial letter capitalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4),1617-1628.
28 Rayner K., White S. J., Kambe G., Miller B., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2003). On the processing of meaning from parafoveal vision during eye fixations in reading. In J. Hy?n?, R. Radach, & H. Deubel (Eds.), Cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research (pp. 213-234). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
29 Schotter E.R . ( 2013). Synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in English. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(4),619-633.
30 Schotter E. R., Lee M., Reiderman M., & Rayner K . ( 2015). The effect of contextual constraint on parafoveal processing in reading.Journal of Memory and Language, 83,118-139.
31 Sheridan H., Reichle E. D., & Reingold E. M . ( 2016). Why does removing inter-word spaces produce reading deficits? The role of parafoveal processing. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.23( 5), 1543-1552.
32 Vasilev M.R., &Angele B. , ( 2017). Parafoveal preview effects from word N + 1 and word N + 2 during reading: A critical review and Bayesian meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.24( 3), 666-689.
33 Wang S., Tong X., Yang J., & Leng Y . ( 2009). Semantic codes are obtained before word fixation in Chinese sentence reading: Evidence from eye-movements. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 41(3),220-232.
34 [ 王穗苹, 佟秀红, 杨锦绵, 冷英 . ( 2009). 中文句子阅读中语义信息对眼动预视效应的影响. 心理学报.41( 3), 220-232.]
35 Wei W., Li X., & Pollatsek A . ( 2013). Word properties of a fixated region affect outgoing saccade length in Chinese reading.Vision Research, 80,1-6.
36 Yan M., Kliegl R., Richter E ., Nuthmann, A. & Shu, H. ( 2010). Flexible saccade-target selection in Chinese reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(4),705-725.
37 Yan M., Richter E. M., Shu H., & Kliegl R . ( 2009). Readers of Chinese extract semantic information from parafoveal words. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(3),561-566.
38 Yan G. L., Xiong J. P., Zang C. L., Yu L. L., Cui L., & Bai X. J . ( 2013). Review of Eye-movement Measures in Reading Research. Advances in Psychological Science.21( 4), 589-605.
39 [ 闫国利, 熊建萍, 臧传丽, 余莉莉, 崔磊, 白学军 . ( 2013). 阅读研究中的主要眼动指标评述. 心理科学进展.21( 4), 589-605.]
40 Yang J., Wang S., Xu Y., & Rayner K . ( 2009). Do Chinese readers obtain preview benefit from word n+2? Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35(4),1192-1204.
41 Yen M-H., Radach R., Tzeng O. J-L., Hung D. L., & Tsai J-L . ( 2009). Early parafoveal processing in reading Chinese sentences. Acta Psychologica, 131(1),24-33.
42 Zang C., Wang Y., Bai X., Yan G., Drieghe D., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2016). The use of probabilistic lexicality cues for word segmentation in Chinese reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69(3),548-560.
[1] 白学军,马杰,李馨,连坤予,谭珂,杨宇,梁菲菲. 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得及其改善[J]. 心理学报, 2019, 51(4): 471-483.
[2] 刘志方;张智君;杨桂芳. 中文阅读中的字词激活模式:来自提示词边界延时效应的证据[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(9): 1082-1092.
[3] 苏衡;刘志方;曹立人. 中文阅读预视加工中的词频和预测性效应及其对词切分的启示:基于眼动的证据[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(6): 625-636.
[4] 马利军;张积家. 汉语动宾结构惯用语加工的基本单元:来自词切分的证据[J]. 心理学报, 2014, 46(6): 754-764.
[5] 刘志方;闫国利;张智君;潘运;杨桂芳. 中文阅读中的预视效应与词切分[J]. 心理学报, 2013, 45(6): 614-625.
[6] 白学军,梁菲菲,闫国利,田瑾,臧传丽,孟红霞. 词边界信息在中文阅读眼跳目标选择中的作用:来自中文二语学习者的证据[J]. 心理学报, 2012, 44(7): 853-867.
[7] 张智君,刘志方,赵亚军,季靖. 汉语阅读过程中词切分的位置:一项基于眼动随动显示技术的研究[J]. 心理学报, 2012, 44(1): 51-62.
[8] 白学军,郭志英,顾俊娟,曹玉肖,闫国利. 词切分对日-汉双语者汉语阅读影响的眼动研究[J]. 心理学报, 2011, 43(11): 1273-1282.
[9] 沈德立,白学军,臧传丽,闫国利,冯本才,范晓红. 词切分对初学者句子阅读影响的眼动研究[J]. 心理学报, 2010, 42(02): 159-172.
[10] 沈模卫,李忠平,张光强. 词切分与字间距对引导式汉语文本阅读工效的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2001, 33(05): 27-32.
[11] 杨玉芳,孙健. 词边界信息在句中的分布[J]. 心理学报, 1994, 26(01): 8-13.
Full text



版权所有 © 《心理学报》编辑部
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发  技术支持