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心理学报  2019, Vol. 51 Issue (4): 437-449    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00437
  “以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展”专栏 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
接受还是拒绝? 反应模式助推基础课与拓展课均衡选择
刘隽1,2,张震1,2,孙彦2,3,韩布新1,2,陆勤4,刘萍萍1,2()
1 中国科学院心理健康重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所), 北京 100101
2 中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
3 中国科学院行为科学重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所), 北京 100101
4 香港理工大学电子计算学系, 香港
Accept or reject?The nudge effect of response options on making a balanced choice between enhancement and enrichment classes
LIU Jun1,2,ZHANG Zhen1,2,SUN Yan2,3,HAN Bu-Xin1,2,LU Qin4,LIU Ping-Ping1,2()
1 CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China
2 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China
4 Department of Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
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摘要 

近年课外辅导成为学生学习生活的重要部分, 人们普遍选择拓展课数较多, 选择基础课数较少。为了实现基础课及拓展课学习的均衡发展, 本研究在“接受或拒绝反应模式” ( Shafir, 1993)的理论框架指导下, 通过3个实验探索反应模式对小学生课外辅导课程类型(基础课/拓展课)选择的影响。实验1探讨来自不同家庭的三代人(小学生/父母/祖辈)在不同反应模式(接受/拒绝)下的课程决策差异。为排除不同家庭环境因素的可能影响, 实验2探讨来自同一家庭的三代人在不同反应模式下的课程决策差异。实验3在真实的课外辅导现场报名点检验反应模式助推基础课选择的生态化效度。结果表明, (1)父母组选择的辅导课总数显著多于祖辈组和小学生组; (2)三代人在接受和拒绝反应模式下均偏好选择拓展课; (3)同接受反应模式相比, 三代人均在拒绝反应模式下选择更多课程, 具体表现在拒绝反应模式下对基础课和拓展课的选择数均相对增加, 但对拓展课的选择比例相对减少, 对基础课的选择比例相对增加, 课程的选择趋于均衡。鉴于此, 在选课中简单地采用拒绝反应模式, 便可助推小学生家庭选择更多基础课, 从而实现基础课及拓展课的均衡选择。本研究成功验证了拒绝反应模式在儿童教育决策领域的适用性, 对儿童教育者及学生家庭有重要现实指导意义。

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刘隽
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孙彦
韩布新
陆勤
刘萍萍
关键词 反应模式助推课外辅导课程类型决策者角色    
Abstract

In recent years, extracurricular classes have always been hot topics of research in areas such as Education, Economics and Sociology. Taking extracurricular classes have become an important part of student lives. There are two types of curricula for students: (1) the enhancement classes which aim to improve the learning abilities and academic performance; (2) the enrichment classes which focus on developing the comprehensive abilities, such as interests and specialties. Recent studies have shown that enrichment classes of various kinds are much more popular than enhancement classes targeted for improvement of academic performances. Primary school students and their parents tend to choose enrichment classes which are more enjoyable than enhance classes which have long-term benefit academically. How can we achieve the balance in choosing between the two types of curricula? Guided by the theoretic framework of the Nudge Effect of the two response options - Accept and Reject, this work explores the task-type effect of accept and reject as different options to influence the selection of different types of classes through three experiments.

Experiment 1 observes the difference in class selection strategy categorized by generations as three groups (students/parents/grand-parents) of different families under the two response options. Experiment 2 observes the difference in class selection strategy by three generations of the same family under the two response options. The design and procedures of the two experiments are similar except participants invited under the laboratory scenario. It adopts a 2 (response options: accept/reject; between-subjects variable) × 2 (curricula types: enhancement classes / enrichment classes; within-subjects variable) × 3 (types of decision makers: primary school students / primary school parents / grandparents; between-subjects variable) mixed design. Results show that (1) people in the parent group tend to select more classes than that of both the student group and the grand-parent group; (2) all three groups tend to select more enrichment classes than academic enhancement classes no matter which response option is used; and (3) when comparing the two response options, all three groups tend to select more number of classes under the reject option. More specifically, under the reject option, people tend to select more enhancement classes relatively than that in the accept option. However, under the reject option, the differences between enrichment classes and enhancement classes are narrowed, which means the selection of enrichment classes and academic enhancement classes are more balanced under the reject option.

Experiment 3 is conducted as a field study to directly talk to people who are submitting applications for extracurricular classes to see whether the use of different response options can indeed influence their decision making on the spot. It adopts a 2 (response options: accept/reject; between-subjects variable) × 2 (curricula types: enhancement classes / enrichment classes; within-subjects variable) mixed design. Consistent with those results of Experiment 1 & 2, Experiment 3 shows that parents tend to select more classes in the rejection response condition than in the acceptance response condition. Participants also tend to select enrichment classes in both response conditions. However, their preference to enhancement classes in the rejection response condition was significantly higher than that in the acceptance response condition. All the three experiments show that the rejection response option has a significant boost to a more balanced selection of primary school parents.

This study successfully proved that the use of the reject option is also applicable to decision making strategies of child education. The result of this work can serve as a direct reference to both educators as well as student families when making choices on extracurricular classes.

Key wordsresponse options    nudging    extracurricular classes    curricula types    decision makers
收稿日期: 2018-08-14      出版日期: 2019-02-22
中图分类号:  B849: C91  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金项目(31600887)
通讯作者: 刘萍萍     E-mail: liupp@psych.ac.cn
引用本文:   
刘隽,张震,孙彦,韩布新,陆勤,刘萍萍. (2019). 接受还是拒绝? 反应模式助推基础课与拓展课均衡选择. 心理学报, 51(4): 437-449.
LIU Jun,ZHANG Zhen,SUN Yan,HAN Bu-Xin,LU Qin,LIU Ping-Ping. (2019). Accept or reject?The nudge effect of response options on making a balanced choice between enhancement and enrichment classes. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(4), 437-449.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00437      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2019/V51/I4/437
课程类型 课程名字 M SD t(19)
拓展课 儿童情商课 4.95 0.22 39.00***
素质体能 4.80 0.70 11.57***
语言艺术 4.60 0.75 9.49***
思维逻辑 4.85 0.37 22.58***
创意美术 5.0 0
基础课 语文作文 1.4 0.60 -11.96***
数学冲刺 1.45 0.51 -13.58***
语文阅读 1.20 0.52 -15.39***
数学基础 1.15 0.49 -16.91***
英语基础 1.3 0.57 -13.31***
  实验1和实验2课程类型控制的分析结果
  基础课和拓展课在不同维度上的积极与消极特征评分(实验1)
  不同反应模式下的选课任务(实验1和实验2)
  被试在不同反应模式下选择的课程数量(实验1) 注: 误差线为标准误
  被试在不同反应模式下选择的课程类型数量(实验1) 注: 误差线为标准误
  同一家庭被试在不同反应模式下选择的课程数量(实验2) 注: 误差线为标准误
  被试在不同反应模式下对不同类型课程的选择(实验2) 注: 误差线为标准误
课程类型 课程名字 M SD t(19)
拓展课 书法课 4.75 0.44 17.62***
美术课 4.80 0.41 19.62***
合唱团 4.65 0.49 15.08***
基础课 语文作文辅导 1.30 0.57 -13.31***
数学辅导 1.20 0.52 -15.39***
英语辅导 1.35 0.59 -12.57***
  实验3课程类型控制的分析结果
  基础课和拓展课在不同维度上的积极与消极特征评分(实验3)
  不同反应模式下的选课任务(实验3)
  被试在不同反应模式下选择的课程数量(实验3) 注: 误差线为标准误
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