ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (3): 269-279.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00269

• 研究报告 •    下一篇

情绪对连续事件定向遗忘的影响

任小云1, 李玉婷2, 毛伟宾1(), 耿秋晨1   

  1. 1山东师范大学心理学院, 济南 250358
    2山东中医药大学中医学院, 济南 250355
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-12 出版日期:2019-03-25 发布日期:2019-01-22
  • 通讯作者: 毛伟宾 E-mail:wb_mao@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金(31571113);山东省自然科学基金资助(ZR2014CM022)

The effect of emotion on directed forgetting for continuous events

REN Xiaoyun1, LI Yuting2, MAO Weibin1(), GENG Qiuchen1   

  1. 1 School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
    2 School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355, China
  • Received:2018-04-12 Online:2019-03-25 Published:2019-01-22
  • Contact: MAO Weibin E-mail:wb_mao@163.com

摘要:

本研究采用项目法定向遗忘范式以中性和负性连续事件的视频为实验材料, 通过2个实验考察了情绪对连续事件定向遗忘的影响, 并进一步探讨了情绪对细节记忆和要义记忆的定向遗忘的影响。结果发现, 情绪可以消除细节记忆的定向遗忘效应, 而仅有要义记忆的定向遗忘效应则主要受到事件连续性而非情绪的影响。

关键词: 情绪, 连续事件, 定向遗忘, 要义记忆, 细节记忆

Abstract:

Forgetting is an adaptive process that can limit the interferences from irrelevant distractors and update valuable information. With regard to negative events, intentional forgetting can effectively help us to recover from trauma. The research on the intentional forgetting of emotional information usually adopts the directed forgetting paradigm. The better memory performance of R items relative to F items is referred to as the typically directed forgetting effect. Although emotional information is thought to be easier to remember than neutral information because of the attentional capture and elaborative process, whether emotional information is more resistant to forgetting is obscured. Most studies on emotional directed forgetting used various discrete items, such as words and pictures, and few addressed continuous events that are actually common in our episodic memory. Directed forgetting is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon because specific and general information appears to be forgotten at different rates. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the influence of emotions on the directed forgetting effect of continuous events. This study also explores the differences in forgetting rates between general/gist memory and specific memory.
In the present study, we adopted the event directed paradigm that embeds memory instructions into continuous videos. In experiment 1, 36 participants were equally divided into two groups: one group watched a neutral video, and the other group watched a negative one. Each video contained nine R segments and nine F segments that were surrounded by green and purple borders. The colored borders acted as memory instructions. The participants were asked to remember the video segments when the border was green and to forget the video segments when the border was purple. The test phase involved free recall and recognition. The participants were requested to recall all information about the video regardless of the classification of the memory instruction (R or F segments). Then, the participants were asked to identify the old pictures among the distractors. The old pictures were taken from the studied videos, and the distractors were slightly similar to the old pictures. The participants’ responses were classified as general/gist memory and specific memory on the basis of previous studies. In experiment 2, we disrupted the play order of segments to further explore the influence of continuity on the directed forgetting effect.
The results of experiment 1 showed that the directed forgetting effect was lower in the negative video than in the neutral video. In addition, the participants demonstrated good memory for the general/gist information of the negative video in free recall. In the recognition phase, no directed forgetting effect was observed for specific memory in the negative video. The result indicated that emotions impaired or eliminated directed forgetting for continuous events. However, the performance of the gist-only memory for the R and F segments was not significant in the neutral and negative videos. Therefore, we speculated that the sequential play of segments might have led to the possibility of participants correctly guessing the general gist of the content. Therefore, we disrupted the order of segments in experiment 2, and the results showed a typically directed forgetting effect for gist-only memory.
In conclusion, directed forgetting could appear in continuous events. However, emotions impair the directed forgetting effect for a specific memory. For gist-only memory, the directed forgetting effect is affected by the continuity of events.

Key words: emotion, continuous event, directed forgetting, general/gist memory, specific memory

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