ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (1): 96-105.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00096

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

享受当下, 还是留待未来?——时间观对跨期决策的影响

徐岚1,2, 陈全1, 崔楠1,2,*, 陆凯丽1   

  1. 1 武汉大学经济与管理学院
    2 武汉大学组织营销研究中心, 武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-06 出版日期:2019-01-25 发布日期:2018-11-26
  • 通讯作者: 崔楠
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目(71472141);* 国家自然科学基金项目(71472142);* 国家自然科学基金项目(71772141);* 国家自然科学基金项目资助(71872140)

Enjoy the present or wait for the future? Effects of individuals’ view of time on intertemporal choice

XU Lan1,2, CHEN Quan1, CUI Nan1,2,*, LU Kaili1   

  1. 1 Economics and Management School, Wuhan University
    2 Research Center for Organizational Marketing of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  • Received:2017-04-06 Online:2019-01-25 Published:2018-11-26
  • Contact: CUI Nan

摘要:

本研究通过三组实验考察了线性和循环两种时间观对跨期决策的影响。实验1表明与循环时间观的人相比, 线性时间观的人在跨期决策时更倾向于选择近期选项(假设1)。实验2进一步验证假设1, 并且验证了时间感知的中介作用(假设2)。实验3考察了时间标记(有标记 VS. 无标记)对主效应的调节作用(假设3)。实验结果发现, 在无标记情境下, 线性时间观的人们会比循环时间观的人们更偏好近期选项; 而在有标记情境下, 这种效应会被减弱。本研究揭示了时间观可以作为个体跨期决策偏好的一种影响因素, 并丰富了主观时间感知角度的跨期决策研究。

关键词: 线性时间观, 循环时间观, 时间感知, 跨期决策, 时间标记

Abstract:

Intertemporal choice refers to decisions involving tradeoffs among costs and benefits at different time points. Most research on intertemporal choice has explored the influence of choice attributes. The existing literature has also discussed the relationship between individuals’ subjective time conception and their intertemporal choice, especially from the perspective of individuals’ characteristics and internal states. However, few research has investigated the same relationship from the perspective of the general view of time among individuals. Individuals’ view of time can be classified into two types, namely, linear and circular views of time. We posit that views of time relate to individuals’ perception of change in their surrounding environment. Such views may affect individuals’ time perception and hence their intertemporal decision making.
Three studies confirm our hypotheses. Hypothesis 1 states that people with a circular view of time, relative to those with a linear view of time, prefer the larger but later (LL) option in an intertemporal choice. Study 1 tested this main effect between the view of time and intertemporal decision making. The results of Study 1 confirmed Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 2 states that participants with a linear view of time, relative to those with a circular view of time, perceive a longer time delay in the LL option in an intertemporal choice; thus, they prefer the smaller but sooner option. Hypothesis 2 also states that time perception of delay in the LL option mediates the effect of individuals’ view of time on intertemporal choice. Study 2 tested the mediating effect of time perception in intertemporal decision making. Sixty-four participants were randomly assigned to one group with a linear view of time and another group with a circular view of time. All participants were presented with the same task and asked to finish the corresponding computerized questionnaires. The results of Study 2 supported Hypotheses 1 and 2. The ANOVA results indicated that the participants with a linear view of time perceived a long time delay and thus preferred the SS option in intertemporal decision making. Bootstrap mediating analysis indicated that time perception of delay mediated the influence of the participants’ view of time on intertemporal choice.
Hypothesis 3 posits that the presence or absence of a time marker moderates the effect proposed in Hypothesis 1. Study 3 was performed to test Hypothesis 3. A total of 122 participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups in a two (view of time: linear versus circular) by two (time marker: with marker versus without marker) between-subject experimental design. The participants were then asked to finish the corresponding experimental task. The ANOVA result revealed that the interaction term between view of time and time marker was significant. In the absence of a time marker, view of time significantly influenced the participants’ time conception. Such effect diminished with the availability of specific time markers. These findings supported Hypothesis 3.
This research confirmed the differences between linear and circular views of time in the midst of an intertemporal choice. Results revealed that people with a circular view of time, relative to those with a linear view of time, prefer the LL option in an intertemporal choice. The effect of such preference is mediated by time conception and is significant when specific time markers are absent.

Key words: linear view of time, circular view of time, time perception, intertemporal choice, time marker

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