ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (1): 71-84.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00071

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

面孔吸引力和信息正确性对幼儿选择性信任的影响

唐卫海, 钟汝波, 许晓旭, 刘希平*   

  1. 天津师范大学教育科学学院, 天津 300387
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-02 出版日期:2019-01-25 发布日期:2018-11-26
  • 通讯作者: 刘希平
  • 基金资助:
    * 天津市哲学社会科学规划课题资助(TJJX15-017);天津师范大学培育国家社科重大招标项目专项基金资助(2017)

Effects of facial attractiveness and information accuracy on preschoolers’ selective trust

TANG Weihai, ZHONG Rubo, XU Xiaoxu, LIU Xiping*   

  1. School of Educational Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
  • Received:2017-05-02 Online:2019-01-25 Published:2018-11-26
  • Contact: LIU Xiping

摘要:

实验1采用3×2×2 的混合设计, 考察4~6岁幼儿获取全新信息时基于面孔吸引力的选择性信任及其特点。结果显示:(1) 4~6岁的男孩和女孩均表现出对高面孔吸引力者的选择性信任。(2)在选择性信任程度方面:5岁比4岁高, 而4岁和6岁之间、5岁和6岁之间则相同; 女孩在询问任务中比男孩表现出更高的选择性信任, 在赞同任务中则相同。那么, 幼儿的这种选择性信任是否受到信息正确性的调节?为此, 实验2采用2×3的被试间设计, 探讨信息提供者提供信息的正确性对4~6岁幼儿基于面孔吸引力的选择性信任的影响。结果显示:在正确性为50% vs. 50%条件下, 幼儿未对信息提供者产生选择性信任; 在正确性为25% vs. 75%条件下, 幼儿对提供较大正确性信息的低面孔吸引力者产生了选择性信任。研究结果表明:(1)在信息缺乏时, 4~6岁幼儿普遍存在有偏见的选择性信任; 女孩比男孩更易受到社会偏见因素的影响。(2)在信息明确时, 4~6岁幼儿也能做出相对理性的选择性信任。

关键词: 幼儿, 信息正确性, 面孔吸引力, 选择性信任, 社会偏见

Abstract:

The research area on children’s selective trust in testimony was initiated by Harris et al. (2014). Previous studies had found that knowledge, as a trustworthy source, is conditional. In addition, the certainty of new information that is decided by the knowledge cues can influence children’s selective trust. Bascandziev and Harris (2014) found that four- to five-year-old boys in an ask task did not show biased selective trust to an informant with a high facial attractiveness when they were learning new information. However, the difference in facial attractiveness was possibly not detected by the children and the children’s age was not controlled. Therefore, the aim of Experiment 1 was to find the characteristics of selective trust on the basis of facial attractiveness when children acquire new information. The goal of Experiment 2 was to examine whether information accuracy or facial attractiveness is the main factor influencing children’s selective trust.
Experiment 1 adopted a 3 (age group: four-, five-, six-year-old children) × 2 (gender: male, female) × 2 (task: ask, endorse) mixed design. A total of 63 four-year-old children (Mage = 54.72 months, SD = 2.06 months, 30 girls) and 66 five-year-old children (Mage = 66.00 months, SD = 1.47 months, 33 girls) were selected from two kindergartens in Tianjin. In addition, 66 six-year-old children (Mage = 78.12 months, SD = 1.80 months, 30 girls) were selected from an elementary school in the same city. Experiment 2 adopted a 2 (accuracy of information: 50% vs. 50%, 25% vs. 75%) × 3 (age group: four-, five-, six-year-old children) between-subject design. A total of 62 four-year-old children (Mage = 54.72 months, SD = 3.17 months, 28 girls) and 59 five-year-old children (Mage = 66.48 months, SD = 3.59 months, 27 girls) were selected from two kindergartens in Tianjin. Moreover, 56 six-year-old children (Mage = 78.12 months, SD = 1.80 months, 27 girls) were selected from an elementary school in the same city. All children in the two experiments participated in ask and endorse tasks using a laptop computer to selectively trust one of two informants with different levels of facial attractiveness.
The results of Experiment 1 revealed that four- to six-year-old girls and boys show selective trust to informants with high facial attractiveness in the ask and endorse tasks. Moreover, five-year-old children have stronger degree of selective trust to informants with high facial attractiveness than four-year-old children. No difference was found between five- and six-year-old children and between four- and five-year-old children. Girls were stronger than boys in the ask task, no difference between was found between them in the endorse task. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that four- to six-year-old children in equal- and unequal-accuracy conditions show selective trust to informants with high facial attractiveness when they completed ask task. Moreover, no difference was found among the three age groups on the degree of selective trust to informants with high facial attractiveness. However, when they completed the endorse task, children in the equal-accuracy condition did not show any preference to informants with high or low facial attractiveness. By contrast, children in the unequal-accuracy condition tended to selectively trust informants who had low facial attractiveness but mentioned more accurate names. However, no difference was found among the three age groups on the degree of selective trust to informants with low facial attractiveness.
On the basis of these results, this study proposes the following: (1) Girls and boys aged four-six years show selective trust on the basis of facial attractiveness if the information is deficient. Moreover, girls aged four to six years are more venerable to social bias factors than boys of the same age range. (2) Four- to six-year-old children can make rational judgments on the reliability of the information provided by informants if the information is sufficient.

Key words: preschoolers, accuracy of information, facial attractiveness, selective trust, social prejudice

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