ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (11): 1249-1258.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01249

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

视觉符号否定的加工进程

何德娴1, 李金惠1, 周苗4, 陈雅珏1, 陈宇1, 何先友1,2,3()   

  1. 1 华南师范大学心理学院, 广州 510631
    2 教育部人文社科重点研究基地 心理应用研究中心, 广州 510631
    3 广东省心理健康与认知科学重点实验室, 广州 510631
    4 广州市融资担保中心有限责任公司, 广州 510030
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-09 出版日期:2018-11-25 发布日期:2018-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 何先友 E-mail:xianyouhe@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 2016年国家自然科学基金项目(项目号: 31671132);2015年教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(项目号: 15JJD190005);广东省高等学校珠江学者岗位计划资助项目(2017)资助

Processing of visual negation

HE Dexian1, LI Jinhui1, ZHOU Miao4, CHEN Yajue1, CHEN Yu1, HE Xianyou1,2,3()   

  1. 1 School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2 Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    3 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    4 Guangzhou Financial Guarantee Center Co., Ltd, Guangzhou 510030, China
  • Received:2017-08-09 Online:2018-11-25 Published:2018-09-25
  • Contact: HE Xianyou E-mail:xianyouhe@163.com

摘要:

本研究采用图-词匹配的判断任务探讨视觉符号否定的加工机制, 设计3个实验, 分别探讨视觉符号否定在加工早期(250 ms)、中期(750 ms)及晚期(1500 ms)的心理模拟特点。结果发现, 在视觉符号否定加工的早期、中期及晚期, 与真实状态匹配的否定相关词的反应时都显著快于与被否定状态匹配的肯定相关词。该结果表明, 与文字符号否定加工的两步模拟假设不同, 在视觉符号否定的加工中, 被试在早期就模拟了事件的真实状态, 并在中期和晚期一直保持该状态的表征, 符合一步模拟假设; 此外, 被否定信息加工的抑制/保存假设得到支持。

关键词: 视觉符号否定, 视觉否定标记, 两步模拟假设, 抑制/保存假说

Abstract:

Previous research focused on the processing of verbal negation, while there was very little research in the area of visual negation. In this study, the lexical decision paradigm was used to explore the mental simulation of visual negation processing in early, middle, and late processing stages to reveal the mechanism of visual negation. To achieve this goal, we performed three experiments. In each experiment on each trial subjects first viewed a picture, and then after a interstimulus interval (ISI) that varied by experiment, viewed a word and had to decide if the word was consistent with the picture or not.

Experiment 1 explored the mental simulation of visual negation in early stage of processing using a short 250ms ISI. Participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes which represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes which represented the negated states. This implies that, in the early stage of the visual negation processing, the final state has already been simulated in the participants’ representation. Although the results did not confirm the two-step-simulation hypothesis, it supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

Experiment 2 examined the mental simulation of visual negation in middle stage of processing using a 750ms ISI. The pattern of results was very similar to Experiment 1: participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes that represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes that represented the negated states. These results imply that the final state was simulated in the participants’ representation during the middle stage of processing.

Experiment 3 explored the late stage of processing using a 1500ms ISI. The results pattern replicated those of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, that is, the reaction time to negative probes was significantly faster than to affirmative probes. The results demonstrated that in the late stage of the visual negation processing, participants simulated the actual final state of the visual negative pictures but not the negated state of the visual negative pictures. Again, it disconfirmed the two-step simulation hypothesis, but supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

In sum, taken together the findings from the three experiments, we can draw the following conclusions. The actual state was simulated during the processing of visual negation similarly across the early, middle, and late visual processing stages. These results support the theory that simulation occurs in a single step (the one-step simulation view) rather than the two-step simulation view. Second, the suppression / retention hypothesis for the negated information processing in visual negation has been strongly supported.

Key words: visual negation, visual negation maker, two-step-simulation hypothesis, the suppression / retention hypothesis

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