ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (11): 1235-1248.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01235

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

多目标追踪中基于运动信息的分组效应

胡路明1, 苏晶1, 魏柳青1, 张学民1,2()   

  1. 1 北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学)
    2 北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-11 出版日期:2018-11-25 发布日期:2018-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 张学民 E-mail:xmzhang@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目“多目标视觉追踪中注意分配的认知神经机制研究”(批准号:31271083);国家自然科学基金重点项目“注意神经机制的可计算模型研究” 资助(批准号:61632014)

The grouping effect of common fate in multiple object tracking

HU Luming1, SU Jing1, WEI Liuqing1, ZHANG Xuemin1,2()   

  1. 1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University); Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University
    2 State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2017-12-11 Online:2018-11-25 Published:2018-09-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Xuemin E-mail:xmzhang@bnu.edu.cn

摘要:

本研究旨在探讨运动信息对多目标追踪的影响, 具体为考察多目标追踪中是否存在基于运动信息的分组效应, 以及不同类型表面特征(颜色和形状)对这一效应的影响。实验1发现多目标追踪中存在基于运动信息的分组效应, 并且这一分组效应是自动化的。实验2和实验3分别在不同颜色和不同形状组合条件下考察了基于运动信息的分组效应的稳定性, 结果都表明不同表面特征的组合不会干扰基于运动信息的分组效应的形成, 但其效应量都因表面特征的出现而缩减。整体而言, 多目标追踪中存在基于运动信息的自动化分组效应, 并且这一效应是格式塔法则中共同命运律的具体表现, 能稳定存在于不同表面特征组合之间。

关键词: 多目标追踪, 共同命运, 运动信息, 分组效应

Abstract:

The automatic grouping effect is the finding that inter-target grouping improves performance, while target-distractor grouping impairs performance during multiple object tracking (MOT). Many features can induce the automatic grouping effect, such as color, shape, interpolation, and symmetry. However, none of these features are spatial-temporal. Motion information is the principal spatial-temporal feature, and it plays an important role in multiple object tracking (MOT). Using motion information stored in visual spatial working memory (VSWM), people can not only keep track of multiple moving targets among identical distractors, but also periodically extrapolate the motion trajectory of targets. We investigated whether or not participants can use motion information as the basis of the automatic grouping effect just as they can with other feature (e.g. color, shape) during attention tracking.

To test this question, we used classic random motion as the baseline and added two new types of chasing motion in MOT tasks. One chasing motion condition was target-chase-target; the other chasing motion condition was distractor-chase-target. Given that surface features can influence the grouping effect based on motion information, we next tested the motion-based grouping effect in a condition where targets and distractors are assigned different color combinations (Experiment 2) and different shape combinations (Experiment 3). The different color combinations included identical color between targets and distractors, distinct colors between targets and distractors, and mixed colors between targets and distractors. The shape combinations were analogous to the color combinations.

Results of Experiment 1 showed that, compared to the random motion condition, tracking performance was better when targets chased targets and worse when distractors chased targets. In other words, motion information can be used as an automatic grouping cue. Results of Experiment 2 indicated that the tracking performance in the target-chase-target condition was always better than the distractor-chase-target condition when colors were identical, distinct, or mixed. However, compared with the identical color condition, the difference between chasing conditions (target-chase-target condition minus distractor-chase-target condition) was smaller in both the distinct color condition and the mixed color condition. When Experiment 3 varied the surface feature from color to shape, the results were the same as Experiment 2. The surface feature (i.e., color and shape) did not eliminate the motion-based grouping effect, but it did reduce the difference between the target-chase-target condition and distractor-chase-target condition.

From these results, we can conclude that motion information can be used in multiple object tracking and may be an automatic grouping feature. This suggests that spatial-temporal features can also induce automatic grouping, regardless of the effect of surface feature in MOT tasks. It may also imply that, although motion information is encoded automatically and in parallel during tracking, it may share visual spatial working memory resources with surface feature. Finally, motion-based grouping effect in MOT showed that the gestalt law was embodied in attentive tracking.

Key words: multiple object tracking, common fate, motion information, grouping effect

中图分类号: