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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (10): 1169-1179    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01169
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群体背景下的自我监控:对个体地位获取和群体任务绩效的积极效应
胡琼晶1,路西2,张志学3()
1浙江大学管理学院, 杭州 310058
2中国农业大学经济管理学院, 北京 100083
3北京大学光华管理学院, 北京 100871
Self-monitoring in group context: Its indirect benefits for individual status attainment and group task performance
Qiongjing HU1,Xi LU2,Zhixue ZHANG3()
1 School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2 College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
3 Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
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摘要 

自我监控是与人际互动密切相关的人格特质。在群体建立和发展的过程中, 自我监控不仅影响个体的人际交往质量, 同时也作用于群体内部的互动; 并且, 自我监控的作用可能随着群体的发展而发生动态变化。为探究上述设想, 本研究针对32个大学新生寝室进行了一学期的跟踪调查。结果表明, 在个体层面, 个体自我监控水平促进群体成员对该个体的积极情感, 并进而间接促进其在群体中的地位获取(个体地位和友谊网络中心度); 在群体层面, 群体自我监控水平促进群体成员间的凝聚力, 并进而间接促进群体在合作中的绩效表现。此外, 个体自我监控水平对他人积极情感的影响存在时间效应, 具体而言, 其正向效应随着群体发展得到一定程度的增强。本研究揭示了自我监控对于个体和群体发生影响的机理, 对于自我监控理论以及地位等相关领域做出了一定的贡献。

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胡琼晶
路西
张志学
关键词 自我监控地位获取群体绩效追踪研究    
Abstract

Self-monitoring, as a personality trait, describes the extent to which an individual is attentive to social cues and regulates and adapts his/her own behaviors accordingly to achieve social appropriateness. In the process of group establishment and development, self-monitoring not only impacts the quality of interpersonal relationships but also influences both group interaction and group outcome. While prior studies have focused on the effects of self-monitoring at the individual level, researchers have generally ignored the effects at the group level and have not examined the role of self-monitoring in group dynamics over time. To fill this gap, this study examined the effects of self-monitoring within the context of group development.

In general, this research adopts a dynamic perspective to explore the effects of self-monitoring at both individual and group levels. Specifically, at the individual level, we attempted to examine how self-monitoring affects the positive sentiments held by other group members toward an individual and further influences the individual’s status attainment within the group; at the group level, we attempted to examine how group-mean self-monitoring affects group cohesion as well as the group performance in collaborative tasks. In addition, we intended to explore whether the effect of self-monitoring on positive sentiments changes over time and whether the effect of group-mean self-monitoring on group cohesion changes over time.

To test the hypotheses, we conducted a longitudinal study (three points in time) over one semester, deliberately choosing students from 32 freshmen dorms as the participants, and we collected data through both surveys and a behavioral task at three waves (T1, T2, and T3). The results showed that at the individual level, self-monitoring was positively related to positive sentiments held by other group members toward the focal person, and self-monitoring had a positive indirect effect on the focal person’s status attainment (indicated by status rating and friendship network centrality) via positive sentiments; at the group level, group-mean self-monitoring was positively related to group cohesion, and group-mean self-monitoring had a positive indirect effect on the group performance in a collaborative task via group cohesion. We also found that the positive effect of self-monitoring on group members’ positive sentiments toward the focal person increased over time (from T2 to T3).

This research makes several contributions to existing literature. First, we contribute to the self-monitoring literature by exploring the effects of self-monitoring at both individual and group levels. Our findings revealed that high self-monitors can not only build high-quality interpersonal relationships for themselves but also enhance group cohesion in a collective way. Second, we introduce a dynamic approach to studying self-monitoring. With the change of interactions among group members and with the group development over time, the effect of self-monitoring may change as well. Adopting the dynamic perspective can capture this changing track and thus deepen our understanding of the role of self-monitoring in the group context. Lastly, we contribute to status research by identifying an important antecedent of individual’s status attainment in group - positive sentiments held by other group members toward the focal person.

Key wordsself-monitoring    status attainment    group performance    longitudinal study
收稿日期: 2017-09-20      出版日期: 2018-08-23
中图分类号:  B849:C91  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金项目资助(71632002)
引用本文:   
胡琼晶,路西,张志学. (2018). 群体背景下的自我监控:对个体地位获取和群体任务绩效的积极效应. 心理学报, 50(10): 1169-1179.
Qiongjing HU,Xi LU,Zhixue ZHANG. (2018). Self-monitoring in group context: Its indirect benefits for individual status attainment and group task performance. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1169-1179.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01169      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I10/1169
  自我监控作用的机理与影响图示 注:实线箭头表示概念间的因果关系; 虚线箭头表示群体概念由个体概念加成得到
  他人积极情感测量示例(1 感谢匿名评审专家建议我们采用示意图的方式来更清晰地表现测量方式。)
变量 M SD 1 2 3 4
1. 个体自我监控(T1) 4.69 0.67
2. 他人积极情感(T2) 4.84 0.92 0.18*
3. 他人积极情感(T3) 4.90 0.92 0.31*** 0.64***
4. 个体地位(T3) 5.08 0.98 0.04 0.41*** 0.62***
5. 友谊网络中心度
(T3)
0.78 0.34 0.01 0.28** 0.32*** 0.29**
  个体层面变量均值、标准差和相关系数
变量 M SD 1 2 3
1. 群体自我监控
(T1)
4.69 0.30
2. 群体凝聚力(T2) 5.49 0.91 0.49**
3. 群体凝聚力(T3) 5.54 0.91 0.45* 0.60***
4. 群体任务绩效
(T3)
11.64 3.91 0.28 0.45** 0.45**
  群体层面变量均值、标准差和相关系数
变量 模型1
他人积极
情感(T2)
模型2
他人积极
情感(T3)
模型3
个人地位(T3)
模型4
友谊网络
中心度(T3)
个体自我监控 0.25*
(0.12)
0.60***
(0.07)
-0.08
(0.12)
-0.03
(0.04)
他人积极情感(T2) 0.28**
(0.09)
0.42***
(0.09)
0.10**
(0.03)
样本量(群体水平) 32 32 32 32
样本量(个体水平) 122 122 122 122
偏差(deviance) 319.93* 250.27*** 311.67*** 64.40**
  个体层面的跨层次回归分析结果
变量 模型1
群体凝聚力
(T2)
模型2
群体凝聚力
(T3)
模型3
群体任务绩效
(T3)
群体自我监控 1.47**
(0.48)
0.62
(0.50)
0.47
(1.22)
群体凝聚力(T2) 0.49**
(0.17)
0.89*
(0.40)
样本量 32 32 32
R2 0.24 0.39 0.21
F 9.22** 9.13*** 3.83*
  群体层面一般线性回归分析结果
路径 自变量→
中介变量(a)
中介变量→
因变量(b)
估计量(a × b) 偏差校正的
置信区间
个体自我监控(T1)-他人积极情感(T2)-个体地位(T3) 0.25 0.42 0.105 [0.006, 0.225]
个体自我监控(T1)-他人积极情感(T2)-友谊网络中心度(T3) 0.25 0.10 0.025 [0.001, 0.058]
群体自我监控(T1)-群体凝聚力(T2)-群体任务绩效(T3) 1.47 0.89 1.308 [0.105, 3.012]
  RMediation检验间接效应的结果
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