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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (10): 1105-1119    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01105
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基于手机APP的双维n-back训练的认知与情绪效益
潘东旎1,2,王道湍3,李雪冰1,2()
1中国科学院心理研究所心理健康重点实验室, 北京 100101
2中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
3北京师范大学心理学部, 北京 100875
Cognitive and emotional benefits of emotional dual dimension n-back training based on an APP
Dong-ni PAN1,2,Daotuan WANG3,Xue-bing LI1,2()
1 Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049, China
3 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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摘要 

工作记忆训练的训练获益能够迁移至与工作记忆相关的各项基础认知活动中去。基于情绪认知控制与工作记忆之间的密切关联, 本研究设计了一种新型情绪性双维n-back训练, 并且验证利用手机APP搭载训练任务的适用性。结果表明:基于APP的短期双维n-back训练能够使个体在视空间工作记忆任务、活动记忆任务、数字转换任务、Stroop任务上的成绩产生相较控制组更大的进步, 表明训练可以提高个体工作记忆的容量和中央执行功能。然而, 基于不同情绪材料的训练(中性、负性、正性)在各类迁移上差异不大。短期训练无法迁移到情绪Stroop任务中, 即无法产生特异的情绪控制上的效益。双维n-back任务通道单一, 且搭载于手机APP, 拥有较为广阔的应用前景。但将情绪材料单纯地糅合进工作记忆任务中的价值与意义须被进一步考察。

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潘东旎
王道湍
李雪冰
关键词 工作记忆训练双n-back迁移情绪工作记忆情绪工作记忆训练手机APP    
Abstract

Audiovisual dual channel n-back training offers the ability to transfer to basic cognitive processes that are closely related to the working memory process. However, dual-channel training based on a computer is highly demanding for a training environment. Thus, it is not conducive to its application promotion. Moreover, emotional working memory training is developed to enhance the emotional control ability of individuals. Only negative material working memory training has been examined. Thus, the general problems of emotional working memory training have not been clarified. A new type of emotional dual dimension n-back training based on smartphone applications was designed in this study. The general applicability and emotional effects of emotion (both positive and negative) and neutral working memory training were examined through the design of a randomized controlled group.

This study developed an app based on n-back task, which is a visual single-channel with two dimensions. A total of 66 healthy college students (34 males and 32 females) participated in the experiment and were randomly divided into control, negative training, neutral training, and positive training groups. All participants were trained with their smartphones. Participants in the training groups must remember the Chinese characters and the position of the Chinese characters in the 3*3 matrix and make two independent n-back tasks on the characters and the position. In the neutral, positive, and negative training groups, the valences of Chinese characters were neutral, positive, and negative, respectively. The participants in the control group completed the digital parity task in an interface similar to a training task. Before and after the training session, participants were asked to complete the visual-spatial working memory task, running memory task, Stroop task, digital shifting task, emotion Stroop task, and a profile of mood states.

Short-term dual-dimension n-back training can make more progress on the visual space work memory task, running memory task, digital shifting task, and classic Stroop task than placebo training. These tasks test the working memory capacity, as well as the update, shift, and inhibit the function, and fully characterize the working memory of the whole picture. However, training based on different emotional materials did not vary greatly across the various types of transfer effects. Short-term training cannot transfer into the emotional Stroop task, which is unable to produce specific emotional control benefits.

The dual-dimensional n-back training app can produce a favorable basic cognitive transfer. This indicates that the cognitive training app has a wide application prospect, and the dual-dimensional training paradigm is worthy of improved employment. For the invisible emotional benefits of the emotional version of n-back training manifested that simply incorporate emotional material into the work memory task must be examined carefully in the future.

Key wordsworking memory training    dual n-back    transfer    emotional working memory    emotional working memory training    APP
收稿日期: 2017-10-23      出版日期: 2018-08-23
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金经费, 中国科学院心理健康重点实验室经费资助(31671136);国家自然科学基金经费, 中国科学院心理健康重点实验室经费资助(31530031)
引用本文:   
潘东旎,王道湍,李雪冰. (2018). 基于手机APP的双维n-back训练的认知与情绪效益. 心理学报, 50(10): 1105-1119.
Dong-ni PAN,Daotuan WANG,Xue-bing LI. (2018). Cognitive and emotional benefits of emotional dual dimension n-back training based on an APP. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1105-1119.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01105      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I10/1105
  实验流程简图
  三个训练组n-back任务训练成绩
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 5.41 (0.99) 5.65 (0.98) 5.19 (0.87) 5.29 (1.47)
后测成绩 5.71 (1.21) 6.44 (1.03) 6.53 (0.90) 6.06 (1.29)
训练效果量 0.29 (1.13) 0.79 (1.28) 1.34 (0.83) 0.78 (0.75)
  不同训练组空间工作记忆广度任务前后测平均差异(个)
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 0.96 (0.09) 0.94 (0.06) 0.96 (0.06) 0.95 (0.06)
后测成绩 0.96 (0.06) 0.96 (0.04) 0.98 (0.03) 0.99 (0.02)
训练效果量 0 (0.12) 0.02 (0.05) 0.02 (0.04) 0.04 (0.05)
  不同训练组活动记忆任务正确率(%)前后测差异
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 517 (118) 494 (144) 422 (154) 521 (116)
后测成绩 501 (167) 427 (174) 386 (135) 419 (83)
训练效果量 15 (171) 67 (84) 46 (121) 102 (132)
  不同训练组数字转换成本前后测差异(ms)
成绩 控制组(N = 17) 负性训练组(N = 17) 中性训练组(N = 16) 正性训练组(N = 16)
前测成绩 818 (81) 858 (122) 788 (162) 853 (104)
后测成绩 773 (64) 745 (88) 685 (143) 729 (84)
训练效果量 45 (47) 113 (92) 103 (115) 123 (117)
  不同训练组Stroop任务前后测差异(ms)
控制组 负性训练组 中性训练组 正性训练组
前测 后测 前测 后测 前测 后测 前测 后测
正性词 736 (53) 708 (56) 730 (78) 690 (80) 693 (79) 672 (77) 744 (67) 724 (62)
中性词 744 (69) 741 (53) 727 (74) 678 (56) 692 (68) 685 (82) 731 (47) 694 (65)
负性词 747 (61) 729 (77) 753 (76) 704 (82) 724 (82) 696 (92) 729 (64) 710 (76)
  情绪Stroop任务前后测反应时(ms)
维度 控制组 负性训练组 中性训练组 正性训练组
增加的紧张 0.59 (1.97) 0.47 (5.65) -1.00 (3.72) -2.50 (3.65)
增加的愤怒 0.76 (3.91 ) 1.76 (7.28) 1.13 (6.56) -1.50 (2.50)
增加的疲劳 -0.06 (4.37 ) -0.12 (6.16) -0.81 (3.33) -1.13 (2.53)
增加的抑郁 0.41 (3.30 ) -0.06 (5.66) -0.56 (3.12) -2.00 (2.45)
增加的精力 0.12 (1.32) -0.06 (5.06) -1.75 (6.09) 0.94 (3.89)
增加的慌乱 -0.18 (1.85) 0.35 (3.86) -1.81 (2.54) -0.94 (3.23)
增加的自尊 0.18 (1.24) -0.06 (4.04) -0.13 (3.91) 0.88 (2.60)
  训练前后简明心境量表子维度分数差异(后测维度均分-前测维度均分)
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