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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (10): 1094-1104    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01094
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鄂伦春族的视空间工作记忆能力优势:生态环境和生产方式的影响
王婷1,关宇霞2,关红英3,张积家1()
1中国人民大学心理学系、国家民委民族语言文化心理重点研究基地、教育部民族教育发展中心民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872
2呼伦贝尔学院教育科学学院, 内蒙古 海拉尔 021008
3鄂伦春民族研究会, 内蒙古 阿里河 165400
Effect of ecological environment and mode of production on the visual-spatial working memory of Oroqens
Ting WANG1,Yuxia GUAN2,Hongying GUAN3,Jijia ZHANG1()
1 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China; The State Ethnic Affairs Commission Key Research Center for Language, Cultural, and Psychology; Key Research Center for National Psychology and Education, the National Education Development Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China
2 Education Science Institute, Hulunbuir University, Hailar, Inner Mongolia, 021008, China
3 Orunchun National Research Center, Alihe, Inner Mongolia, 165400, China
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摘要 

以鄂伦春族和汉族的高中生为被试, 采用简单存储任务和复杂广度任务, 并且引入材料复杂性变量, 考察鄂伦春族和汉族的高中生在视空间工作记忆能力上的差异, 探讨生态环境和生产方式对视空间工作记忆能力的影响。结果表明, 鄂伦春族学生在4个视空间工作记忆任务上的表现均显著好于汉族学生, 材料呈现的结构、数量和路径均不影响鄂伦春族学生在视空间工作记忆能力上的优势。整个研究表明, 鄂伦春族千百年来的生态环境和生产方式已经成为重要的生态变量, 影响其后代的视空间工作记忆能力。

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王婷
关宇霞
关红英
张积家
关键词 鄂伦春族生态环境生产方式文化视空间工作记忆    
Abstract

Working memory refers to a system of temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks, such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning. According to Baddeley (1974), the architecture of working memory comprises four separated components, namely, phonological loop, visual-spatial working memory, central executive, and episodic buffer. The visual-spatial working memory is involved in the temporary retention of visual-spatial information.

The Oroqen is one of the oldest ethnic groups in northeast China. Most Oroqens live in the Oroqen Autonomous Banner in the Greater Hinggan Mountains. The area is bestowed with rich resources with a variety of wild animals. For generations, the Oroqens lived a life of hunting and fishing in the forests. They went on hunting expeditions in groups. Researchers explored the ecological environment and mode of production that affected the performance of cognition. The present study aims to explore whether the natural environment, which has formed the Oroqen’s hunting culture and hunting-gathering stage of economic production, affects their visual-spatial working memory.

In Experiment 1, four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the ecological environment and mode of production on the visuospatial working memory Oroqens. Oroqen (n = 32) and Han (n = 30) high school students performed simple storage and complex visual-spatial span tasks. Simple storage tasks were distinguished into three presentation formats: (i) visual, which involved maintaining irregular figures; (ii) spatial-sequential, which involved maintaining sequentially-presented locations; and (iii) spatial-simultaneous, which involved maintaining patterns of locations. The results proved that Oroqens performed significantly better than Hans in all the four visual-spatial working memory tasks.

In Experiment 2, the Corsi block test presented in a computer was employed to investigate whether the structural, quantitative, and path complexity influenced the visual-spatial working memory of Oroqen (n = 30) and Han (n = 30) students. Results showed that superiority of the Oroqen on visual-spatial working memory still persisted when the memory materials differ in terms of difficulty.

In summary, the ecological environment and mode of production have a significant impact on visual-spatial working memory. The Oroqen people’s ecological environment and traditional mode of production have become a genetic factor that may affect the visual-spatial working memory of their offspring.

Key wordsOroqen nationality    ecological environment    mode of production    culture    visual-spatial working memory
收稿日期: 2017-11-13      出版日期: 2018-08-23
中图分类号:  B849:C91  
  B842  
基金资助:* 中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助)项目“语言影响人格:来自双语者和双言者的行为与生理证据”阶段性成果(17XNL002)
引用本文:   
王婷,关宇霞,关红英,张积家. (2018). 鄂伦春族的视空间工作记忆能力优势:生态环境和生产方式的影响. 心理学报, 50(10): 1094-1104.
Ting WANG,Yuxia GUAN,Hongying GUAN,Jijia ZHANG. (2018). Effect of ecological environment and mode of production on the visual-spatial working memory of Oroqens. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1094-1104.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01094      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I10/1094
  不规则图形
  复杂广度任务示意图
  被试在4项任务上的成绩
  高数量条件下不同结构复杂性的立方体 (注:实验时图中编号不显示)
  被试在不同条件下的视空间工作记忆广度
  简单路径和复杂路径的立方体
  被试在简单路径和复杂路径条件下的视空间工作记忆广度
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