ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (9): 929-939.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00929

• 研究报告 •    下一篇

时间压力对错误记忆的影响:情绪的调节作用

钟毅平(),张文洁,李亚蕾,范伟   

  1. 湖南师范大学教育科学学院, 认知与人类行为湖南省重点实验室, 长沙 410081
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-22 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-07-27
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31671134, 31500883);国家社会科学基金重大项目(17ZDA326);湖南省自然科学基金(2018JJ3341, 2018JJ2254, 2015JJ2097);湖南省社会科学成果评审委员会重点课题(XSP17ZDI019, XSP18ZDI036);湖南省哲学社会科学基金青年资助项目(16YBQ047);湖南省教科规划青年资助项目(XJK016QXL002);湖南省教育厅科学研究一般项目(17C1013);湖南省博物馆新馆儿童教育合作项目(20131231)

Influence of time stress on mood-congruent false memories

Yiping ZHONG(),Wenjie ZHANG,Yalei LI,Wei FAN   

  1. Cognition and Human Behavior Key Laboratory of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
  • Received:2017-08-22 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-07-27
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:

考察时间压力下不同类型的情绪刺激和情绪状态对错误记忆的影响, 并进一步探讨时间压力对心境一致性错误记忆的影响。实验1采用经典的DRM范式, 记录被试对情绪关键诱饵的错误再认数。结果发现时间压力增强了被试对负性关键诱饵的错误再认。实验2先在测试阶段启动被试的情绪, 再记录关键诱饵的错误再认数。结果发现, 在时间压力下, 正性情绪组的被试有更多的错误记忆。实验3采用带有情绪效价的DRM词表, 并在测试阶段启动被试的正负情绪, 然后再记录情绪关键诱饵的错误再认数。结果发现, 压力组和控制组被试都表现出了明显的心境一致性错误记忆。研究结果表明, 时间压力对错误记忆具有增强作用, 尤其对负性心境一致性错误记忆具有更为明显的增强作用, 但个体的负性情绪会削弱在时间压力下错误记忆的产生。这些结果进一步发展了激活监控理论和情感信息等价假设理论。

关键词: 错误记忆, 情绪, 时间压力, 心境一致性

Abstract:

A large number of studies have revealed that memories not only easily fade away but also can occasionally be changed spontaneously; memory errors are everywhere, reminding us that memories are not an exact copy of the experienced events. The influences of the various types of stimulus and emotional states on false memories were first studied by using the classical DRM paradigm. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of time stress on mood-congruent false memories.
The first experiment was performed to identify the influences of different emotional stimuli on false memories under time pressure. The hybrid design method was used, namely, 2 (time stress: stress group and control group) × 3 (word titer: positive word, negative word, and neutral word). The between-subject variable was time pressure, the within-subject variable was word titer, and the dependent variable was the number of the false recognitions of the critical lures. The results of experiment 1 showed that the main effect was remarkable under time stress, as was the valence of words. The interaction between the time stress and valence of words was significant. The results demonstrated that the number of false recognitions for the subjects in the stress group with respect to the negative critical lures was much higher than were those of the neutral and positive ones.
The second experiment sought to uncover the influences of different emotional states on the false memory under time pressure. The design method of 2 (time stress: stress group and control group) × 3 (emotion titer: positive emotion group, negative emotion group, and neutral group) was used, and the dependent variable was the number of the false recognitions of the critical lures. The results of experiment 2 showed that the main effect was marginally significant under the time stress, and the emotion was significant. The interaction between time stress and emotion was significant. The results revealed that the false recognition for the subjects in the positive emotion group with respect to the critical lures had the largest number.
The third experiment utilized the hybrid design method of 2 (time stress: stress group and control group) × 4 (mood type: positive mood-congruency, negative mood-congruency, positive mood-inconsistency, and negative mood-inconsistency) to investigate the influences of time pressure on mood-congruent false memories, demonstrating that both the pressure group and the control group subjects showed a significant mood-congruent false memory. The results of experiment 3 showed that the number of false recognitions with respect to the mood-congruency for the subjects in the stress group and the control group were both higher than that of the mood-inconsistency, and the stress group had a larger number of false recognitions than did the control group under the condition of mood-congruency.
The results of three experiments show that time pressure has a positive effect on false memories and further promotes negative mood-consistency false memories. Individual negative emotions can undermine the generation of false memories under time pressure.

Key words: false memory, emotion, time pressure, mood-congruency

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