Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media
HUANG Minxue1,YAO Shunyu1(),LIU Maohong2
1 Department of Marketing and Tourism Management, Economics and Management School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2 Management School, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China
Recent years have witnessed the increasing prevalence of celebrity endorsement as advertising in China. The reason for this increased prevalence is that celebrity endorsements can boost the credibility and attractiveness of advertisements and therefore lead to increased profits for companies in most cases. In the social media environment, the influence of celebrities is amplified remarkably by the following of their fans. Previous studies have demonstrated that the effect of celebrity endorsements is mostly positive or self-enhancing. However, this effect does not always apply in social media platforms. For example, several celebrity endorsements actually contain self-deprecating content. In this study, we explored the role of self-enhancement and self-deprecation in celebrity endorsement effectiveness and examined their impact on consumers’ intent to share. Furthermore, we introduce the moderating effect of product types, namely, whether a product is utilitarian or hedonic.
To obtain preliminary insights, we collected 86 micro-blog posts with celebrity endorsements and coded them as either self-enhancing or self-deprecating posts. Analysis of secondary data showed that consumers shared numerous self-enhancing celebrity endorsement posts with regard to hedonic products, and consumers shared many self-deprecating celebrity endorsement posts with regard to utilitarian products.
Subsequently, we conducted laboratory studies to validate our hypothesis further. First, we performed a robust test on the effect of different celebrity endorsements on consumers’ intent to share. The results of the two types of celebrity endorsements (self-enhancing and self-deprecating) indicated the effect of self-deprecating celebrity endorsement on consumers’ intent to share was stronger than that of self-enhancing celebrity endorsement. Second, we examined the interactive effect of celebrity endorsements and product types and the mediating role of social influence. As expected, the 2 (celebrity endorsements: self-enhancing vs. self-deprecating) × 2 (product types: utilitarian vs. hedonic) subject design experiment suggested that participants in the utilitarian product condition were willing to share self-deprecating content, and this effect was caused by informative influence. On the contrary, participants in the hedonic product condition were willing to share self-enhancing content, and this effect was driven by normative influence.
Our research contributes to literature on celebrity endorsement in social media by focusing on consumers’ sharing intention rather than purchase behavior. First, this research explores whether self-deprecating celebrity endorsement can strengthen consumers’ intent to share or not. Second, this study provides a new perspective on celebrity endorsement by differentiating its content into two types: self-enhancing and self-deprecating. Third, this research examines the impact of product difference in celebrity advertisement. It reveals that consumers in different product conditions might share different celebrity endorsement advertisements. Finally, we demonstrated the mediation mechanism of the interaction between celebrity endorsement and product type by examining consumers’ sharing intention. Aside from this empirical demonstration, our research also presents many useful implications for companies with regard to the design of celebrity endorsement.
黄敏学, 姚舜禹, 刘茂红. (2018). 自强还是自嘲?名人代言如何提升社会化媒体广告的营销效果. 心理学报, 50(8): 907-919.
HUANG Minxue, YAO Shunyu, LIU Maohong. (2018). Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(8), 907-919.
Angelis M. D., Bonezzi A., Peluso A. M., Rucker D. D., & Costabile M . ( 2012). On braggarts and gossips: A self-enhancement account of word-of-mouth generation and transmission. Journal of Marketing Research,49( 4), 551-563.
Anthony S., Juliano L., & Chris J . ( 2014). Hedonic eating goals and emotion: When sadness decreases the desire to indulge. Journal of Consumer Research,41( 1), 135-151.
Baltas G., Kokkinaki F., & Loukopoulou A . ( 2017). Does variety seeking vary between hedonic and utilitarian products? The role of attribute type. Journal of Consumer Behaviour,16( 6), e1-e12.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A . ( 1986). The moderator- mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,51( 6), 1173-1182.
Bearden W. O., Netemeyer R. G., & Teel J. E . ( 1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of Consumer Research,15( 4), 473-481.
Bergkvist L., Hjalmarson H., & M?gi A. W . ( 2016). A new model of how celebrity endorsements work: Attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects. International Journal of Advertising,35( 2), 171-184.
Brakus J. J., Schmitt B. H., & Zarantonello L . ( 2009). Brand experience: What is it? How is it measured? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing,73( 3), 52-68
Carrillat F. A., D'Astous A., & Christianis H . ( 2014). Guilty by association: The perils of celebrity endorsement for endorsed brands and their direct competitors. Psychology & Marketing,31( 11), 1024-1039.
Chattopadhyay A.., &Basu K . ( 1990). Humor in advertising: The moderating role of prior brand evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research,27( 4), 466-476
Chen C. H., Chang Y. H., Besherat A., & Baack D. W . ( 2013). Who benefits from multiple brand celebrity endorsements? An experimental investigation. Psychology & Marketing,30( 10), 850-860.
Chen C. Y., Lee L., & Yap A. J . ( 2017). Control deprivation motivates acquisition of utilitarian products. Journal of Consumer Research,43( 6), 1031-1047.
Chitturi R., Raghunathan R., & Mahajan V . ( 2008). Delight by design: The role of hedonic versus utilitarian benefits. Journal of Marketing 72( 3), 48-63.
Christophe V. D.., & Stremersch , S. ( 2004). Social contagion and income heterogeneity in new product diffusion: A meta-analytic test. Marketing Science,23( 4), 530-544.
Christophe V. D.B., & Stefan, H. K. W . ( 2007). Social networks and marketing. Marketing Science Institute.
Chung K. Y., Derdenger T. P., & Srinivasan K . ( 2013). Economic value of celebrity endorsements: Tiger woods' impact on sales of nike golf balls. Marketing Science,32( 2), 271-293.
Chung S.., & Cho , H. ( 2017). Fostering parasocial relationships with celebrities on social media: Implications for celebrity endorsement. Psychology & Marketing,34( 4), 481-495.
Crowley A. E., Spangenberg E. R., & Hughes K. R . ( 1992). Measuring the hedonic and utilitarian dimensions of attitudes toward product categories. Marketing Letters,3 ( 3), 239-249
Delre S. A., Broekhuizen T. L. J., & Bijmolt T. H. A. . ( 2016). The effects of shared consumption on product life cycles and advertising effectiveness: The case of the motion picture market. Journal of Marketing Research,53( 4), 608-627.
Du, R. Y. & Kamakura, W. A . ( 2011). Measuring contagion in the diffusion of consumer packaged goods. Journal of Marketing Research,48( 1), 28-47.
Dwivedi A., Johnson L. W., & Mcdonald R . ( 2016). Celebrity endorsements, self-brand connection and relationship quality. International Journal of Advertising,35( 3), 486-503.
Eisend M.., &Langner T. . ( 2010). Immediate and delayed advertising effects of celebrity endorsers’ attractiveness and expertise. International Journal of Advertising,29( 4), 527-546.
Gong W.., & Li , X. ( 2017). Engaging fans on microblog: The synthetic influence of parasocial interaction and source characteristics on celebrity endorsement. Psychology & Marketing,34( 7), 720-732.
Hayes A.F . ( 2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Journal of Educational Measurement,51( 3), 335-337.
Hazari S., Bergiel B. J., & Sethna B. N . ( 2017). Hedonic and utilitarian use of user-generated content on online shopping websites. Journal of Marketing Communications,23( 6), 572-591.
Hoption C., Barling J., & Turner N . ( 2013). “it's not you, it's me”: Transformational leadership and self-deprecating humor. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,34( 1), 4-19.
Huang M. X., Lei L., & Zhu H. W . ( 2016). Money or romance: How should companies lead consumers in we-media sharing? Acta Psychologica Sinica,48( 2), 211-220.
Hung K., Chan K. W., & Tse C. H . ( 2011). Assessing celebrity endorsement effects in china: A consumer- celebrity relational approach. Journal of Advertising Research,51( 4), 608-623.
Iyengar R., Bulte C. V. D., & Valente T. W . ( 2011). Opinion leadership and social contagion in new product diffusion. Marketing Science,30( 2), 195-212.
Iyengar R., Bulte C. V. D., & Lee J. Y . ( 2015). Social contagion in new product trial and repeat. Marketing Science,34( 3), 408-429
Kozinets R. V., Valck K. D., Wojnicki A. C., & Wilner S. J. S. . ( 2010). Networked narratives: Understanding word-of- mouth marketing in online communities. Journal of Marketing,74( 2), 71-89.
Luo L., Chen X., Han J., & Park C. W . ( 2010). Dilution and enhancement of celebrity brands through sequential movie releases. Journal of Marketing Research,47( 6), 1114-1128.
Martin R. A., Puhlik-Doris P., Larsen G., Gray J., & Weir K . ( 2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor styles questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality,37( 1), 48-75.
Mittelstaedt J. D., Riesz P. C., & Burns W. J . ( 2000). Why are endorsements effective? Sorting among theories of product and endorser effects. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising,22( 1), 55-65.
Mishra A. S., Roy S., & Bailey A. A . ( 2015). Exploring brand personality-celebrity endorser personality congruence in celebrity endorsements in the Indian context. Psychology & Marketing,32( 12), 1158-1174.
Moore, S. G . ( 2015). Attitude predictability and helpfulness in online reviews: The role of explained actions and reactions. Journal of Consumer Research,42( 1), 30-44.
Newman G. E., Diesendruck G., & Bloom P . ( 2011). Celebrity contagion and the value of objects. Journal of Consumer Research,38( 2), 215-228.
Ran K.., & Zheng , Y. ( 2017). The effects of promotions on hedonic versus utilitarian purchases. Journal of Consumer Psychology,27( 1), 59-68.
Roobina O. ( 1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers' perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising,19( 3), 39-52.
S??ksj?rvi M., Hellén K., & Balabanis G . ( 2016). Sometimes a celebrity holding a negative public image is the best product endorser. European Journal of Marketing,50( 3-4), 421-441.
Simona B., & Mcgill, A. L . ( 2011). The locus of choice: Personal causality and satisfaction with hedonic and utilitarian decisions. Journal of Consumer Research,37( 6), 1065-1078.
Vinerean S., Opreana A., Cetina I., & Dumitrescu L . ( 2015). Relationships among hedonic and utilitarian factors and exogenous and endogenous influences of consumer behavior in tourism. Expert Journal of Marketing,3( 1), 17-28.
Yang Y., Gu Y J., & Galak J . ( 2016). When it could have been worse, it gets better: How favorable uncertainty resolution slows hedonic adaptation. Journal of Consumer Research,43( 5), 747-768.
Yim M. Y. C., Yoo S. C., Sauer P. L., & Seo J. H . ( 2014). Hedonic shopping motivation and co-shopper influence on utilitarian grocery shopping in superstores. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,42( 5), 528-544.
Zhao X. S., Lynch J. G Jr.., & Chen Q. M . ( 2010). Reconsidering baron and kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research,37( 2), 197-206.
Zhu H. W., Zhang Y. Y., & Gong X . ( 2017). Does company’s humor resolve consumer complaining: The match of humor types and relationship norms. Acta Psychologica Sinica,49( 4), 526-538.