Please wait a minute...
心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (8): 907-919    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00907
     研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
自强还是自嘲?名人代言如何提升社会化媒体广告的营销效果
黄敏学1,姚舜禹1(),刘茂红2
1 武汉大学 经济与管理学院 市场营销与旅游管理系, 武汉 430072
2 武汉科技大学 管理学院, 武汉 430081
Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media
Minxue HUANG1,Shunyu YAO1(),Maohong LIU2
1 Department of Marketing and Tourism Management, Economics and Management School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2 Management School, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China
全文: PDF(1186 KB)   HTML 评审附件 (1 KB) 
输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)       背景资料
文章导读  
摘要 

企业为了促进产品推广, 不惜重金聘请名人为产品代言。已有的文献主要探究名人代言的自强型模式, 很少研究名人代言的自嘲型的表达方式。本文则基于社会影响理论和产品差异理论探究了两种类型名人代言在不同产品情境下对消费者口碑推荐的影响。通过二手数据分析和实验法研究发现:自强型的名人代言更有利于提升消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐; 自嘲型的名人代言更有利于提升消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐; 自强型的名人代言主要是通过强化其规范性影响, 进而增强消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐; 自嘲型的名人代言主要是通过强化其信息性影响, 进而增强消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐。

服务
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章
黄敏学
姚舜禹
刘茂红
关键词 名人代言产品类型规范性影响信息性影响口碑推荐    
Abstract

Recent years have witnessed the increasing prevalence of celebrity endorsement as advertising in China. The reason for this increased prevalence is that celebrity endorsements can boost the credibility and attractiveness of advertisements and therefore lead to increased profits for companies in most cases. In the social media environment, the influence of celebrities is amplified remarkably by the following of their fans. Previous studies have demonstrated that the effect of celebrity endorsements is mostly positive or self-enhancing. However, this effect does not always apply in social media platforms. For example, several celebrity endorsements actually contain self-deprecating content. In this study, we explored the role of self-enhancement and self-deprecation in celebrity endorsement effectiveness and examined their impact on consumers’ intent to share. Furthermore, we introduce the moderating effect of product types, namely, whether a product is utilitarian or hedonic.

To obtain preliminary insights, we collected 86 micro-blog posts with celebrity endorsements and coded them as either self-enhancing or self-deprecating posts. Analysis of secondary data showed that consumers shared numerous self-enhancing celebrity endorsement posts with regard to hedonic products, and consumers shared many self-deprecating celebrity endorsement posts with regard to utilitarian products.

Subsequently, we conducted laboratory studies to validate our hypothesis further. First, we performed a robust test on the effect of different celebrity endorsements on consumers’ intent to share. The results of the two types of celebrity endorsements (self-enhancing and self-deprecating) indicated the effect of self-deprecating celebrity endorsement on consumers’ intent to share was stronger than that of self-enhancing celebrity endorsement. Second, we examined the interactive effect of celebrity endorsements and product types and the mediating role of social influence. As expected, the 2 (celebrity endorsements: self-enhancing vs. self-deprecating) × 2 (product types: utilitarian vs. hedonic) subject design experiment suggested that participants in the utilitarian product condition were willing to share self-deprecating content, and this effect was caused by informative influence. On the contrary, participants in the hedonic product condition were willing to share self-enhancing content, and this effect was driven by normative influence.

Our research contributes to literature on celebrity endorsement in social media by focusing on consumers’ sharing intention rather than purchase behavior. First, this research explores whether self-deprecating celebrity endorsement can strengthen consumers’ intent to share or not. Second, this study provides a new perspective on celebrity endorsement by differentiating its content into two types: self-enhancing and self-deprecating. Third, this research examines the impact of product difference in celebrity advertisement. It reveals that consumers in different product conditions might share different celebrity endorsement advertisements. Finally, we demonstrated the mediation mechanism of the interaction between celebrity endorsement and product type by examining consumers’ sharing intention. Aside from this empirical demonstration, our research also presents many useful implications for companies with regard to the design of celebrity endorsement.

Key wordscelebrity endorsement    product types    normative influence    informative influence    word of mouth
收稿日期: 2017-08-30      出版日期: 2018-07-02
ZTFLH:  B849: C93  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金(71372127);国家自然科学基金(71672132)资助
引用本文:   
黄敏学,姚舜禹,刘茂红. 自强还是自嘲?名人代言如何提升社会化媒体广告的营销效果[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(8): 907-919.
Minxue HUANG,Shunyu YAO,Maohong LIU. Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 907-919.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00907      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I8/907
  研究模型图
名人代言类型 产品类型 代言广告帖子数量
自强型 实用型 15
自强型 享乐型 14
自嘲型 实用型 31
自嘲型 享乐型 26
  名人广告类型与产品类型交叉表
品牌 产品类型 名人代言类型 名人代言广告内容
惠氏健康生活馆 实用型 自嘲型 其实我在微博的工种..就相当于一个在天桥底下贴小广告的..从2010年蹲点贴到2016..无论人流量大小年复一年坚持不懈的作风终于让我在今年迎来了大广告的青睐..感谢善存敢信任我这个神经病...在我婉约的表演里只是期望你能明白这个道理..其实..健康可以很简单..
佳能相机 实用型 自强型 我选择的这款相机是Canon M3, 我做摄影的用心程度, 和音乐不相上下, 希望大家, 能够喜欢这款相机
问道手游 享乐型 自嘲型 我那不和谐的古装造型..和硬炒的求婚话题有没有恶心到你..反正我是恶心到了..为何现在代言营销要这么拼?因为十年的坚持还不够他臭屁的啊~ 我的十年音乐梦 问道十年游戏梦...坚持信念.. 坚持梦..
梦幻西游 享乐型 自强型 这则广告让我绞尽脑汁..重操旧业..我画了整整8个小时手绘一张海报帮其做广告之用心程度也是史无前者后继无人了..这世界上..应该是没有再比我用心打广告的人了..期望大家..给点面子..踊跃参与..
  名人代言广告举例
  自嘲型/自强型名人代言对消费者口碑推荐的影响
  名人广告类型与产品类型的交互对消费者口碑推荐的影响
来源 因变量 III 类平方和 自由度 均方 F p
名人代言类型 点赞量 6.79E+10 1 6.79E+10 0.88 0.350
评论量 5.16E+08 1 5.16E+08 0.29 0.592
转发量 1.01E+09 1 1.01E+09 0.81 0.370
产品类型 点赞量 7.72E+09 1 7.72E+09 0.10 0.752
评论量 5.91E+08 1 5.91E+08 0.33 0.566
转发量 2.23E+09 1 2.23E+09 1.80 0.184
名人代言类型×
产品类型
点赞量 1.34E+12 1 1.34E+12 17.40 <0.001
评论量 2.17E+10 1 2.17E+10 12.16 0.001
转发量 1.72E+10 1 1.72E+10 13.83 <0.001
  多变量回归
  名人广告文案
研究变量 M SD 1 2 3 4 5
1. 自嘲型名人代言 4.14 1.35 1
2. 自强型名人代言 4.35 1.07 -0.51** 1
3. 规范性影响 5.10 0.90 -0.08 0.19* 1
4. 信息性影响 4.77 0.89 0.48** -0.10 -0.14 1
5. 口碑推荐 4.96 0.84 0.19* 0.38** 0.16* 0.43** 1
  各变量的描述统计、相关分析结果
来源 III类平方和 自由度 均方 F p
修正的模型 50.829 3 16.943 48.530 <0.001
截距 3507.139 1 3507.139 10045.587 <0.001
名人广告类型 0.586 1 0.586 1.678 0.197
产品类型 0.065 1 0.065 0.186 0.667
名人广告类型 × 产品类型 49.643 1 49.643 142.192 <0.001
错误 48.528 139 0.349
总计 3621.222 143
校正后系数 99.357 142
  名人广告类型与产品类型的交互对口碑推荐的影响
  名人广告类型与产品类型的交互对消费者口碑推荐的影响
变量 模型1口碑推荐 模型2信息性影响 模型3规范性影响 模型4口碑推荐
β t β t β t β t
自嘲型代言 -0.16 -1.10 -0.08 -0.55 0.19 0.90 -0.11 -0.85
产品类型 -2.53*** -4.30 -2.51*** -4.34 1.29 1.48 -1.53* -2.45
自嘲型代言×产品类型 1.84** 3.35 1.88** 3.47 -1.28 -1.32 1.08 1.94
信息性影响 0.36* 2.96
规范性影响 -0.08 -0.99
调整后R2 0.55 0.56 0.01 0.61
  信息性影响的中介作用
  信息性影响中介作用路径分析图
变量 模型1口碑推荐 模型2规范性影响 模型3信息性影响 模型4口碑推荐
β t β t β t β t
自强型代言 0.16 1.46 0.18 1.31 0.44* 2.33 0.08 0.78
产品类型 -1.21* -2.02 -1.90* -2.54 -0.01 -0.01 -0.62 -1.07
自强型代言×产品类型 1.88* 2.91 2.37* 2.94 -0.24 -0.22 1.15 1.81
规范性影响 0.31** 3.47
信息性影响 0.05 0.76
调整后R2 0.69 0.49 0.08 0.72
  规范性影响的中介作用
  规范性影响中介作用路径分析图
[1] Angelis M. D., Bonezzi A., Peluso A. M., Rucker D. D., & Costabile M . ( 2012). On braggarts and gossips: A self-enhancement account of word-of-mouth generation and transmission. Journal of Marketing Research,49( 4), 551-563.
[2] Anthony S., Juliano L., & Chris J . ( 2014). Hedonic eating goals and emotion: When sadness decreases the desire to indulge. Journal of Consumer Research,41( 1), 135-151.
[3] Baltas G., Kokkinaki F., & Loukopoulou A . ( 2017). Does variety seeking vary between hedonic and utilitarian products? The role of attribute type. Journal of Consumer Behaviour,16( 6), e1-e12.
[4] Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A . ( 1986). The moderator- mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,51( 6), 1173-1182.
[5] Bearden W. O., Netemeyer R. G., & Teel J. E . ( 1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of Consumer Research,15( 4), 473-481.
[6] Bergkvist L., Hjalmarson H., & M?gi A. W . ( 2016). A new model of how celebrity endorsements work: Attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects. International Journal of Advertising,35( 2), 171-184.
[7] Brakus J. J., Schmitt B. H., & Zarantonello L . ( 2009). Brand experience: What is it? How is it measured? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing,73( 3), 52-68
[8] Carrillat F. A., D'Astous A., & Christianis H . ( 2014). Guilty by association: The perils of celebrity endorsement for endorsed brands and their direct competitors. Psychology & Marketing,31( 11), 1024-1039.
[9] Chattopadhyay A.., &Basu K . ( 1990). Humor in advertising: The moderating role of prior brand evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research,27( 4), 466-476
[10] Chen C. H., Chang Y. H., Besherat A., & Baack D. W . ( 2013). Who benefits from multiple brand celebrity endorsements? An experimental investigation. Psychology & Marketing,30( 10), 850-860.
[11] Chen C. Y., Lee L., & Yap A. J . ( 2017). Control deprivation motivates acquisition of utilitarian products. Journal of Consumer Research,43( 6), 1031-1047.
[12] Chitturi R., Raghunathan R., & Mahajan V . ( 2008). Delight by design: The role of hedonic versus utilitarian benefits. Journal of Marketing 72( 3), 48-63.
[13] Christophe V. D.., & Stremersch , S. ( 2004). Social contagion and income heterogeneity in new product diffusion: A meta-analytic test. Marketing Science,23( 4), 530-544.
[14] Christophe V. D.B., & Stefan, H. K. W . ( 2007). Social networks and marketing. Marketing Science Institute.
[15] Chung K. Y., Derdenger T. P., & Srinivasan K . ( 2013). Economic value of celebrity endorsements: Tiger woods' impact on sales of nike golf balls. Marketing Science,32( 2), 271-293.
[16] Chung S.., & Cho , H. ( 2017). Fostering parasocial relationships with celebrities on social media: Implications for celebrity endorsement. Psychology & Marketing,34( 4), 481-495.
[17] Crowley A. E., Spangenberg E. R., & Hughes K. R . ( 1992). Measuring the hedonic and utilitarian dimensions of attitudes toward product categories. Marketing Letters,3 ( 3), 239-249
[18] Delre S. A., Broekhuizen T. L. J., & Bijmolt T. H. A. . ( 2016). The effects of shared consumption on product life cycles and advertising effectiveness: The case of the motion picture market. Journal of Marketing Research,53( 4), 608-627.
[19] Du, R. Y. & Kamakura, W. A . ( 2011). Measuring contagion in the diffusion of consumer packaged goods. Journal of Marketing Research,48( 1), 28-47.
[20] Dwivedi A., Johnson L. W., & Mcdonald R . ( 2016). Celebrity endorsements, self-brand connection and relationship quality. International Journal of Advertising,35( 3), 486-503.
[21] Eisend M.., &Langner T. . ( 2010). Immediate and delayed advertising effects of celebrity endorsers’ attractiveness and expertise. International Journal of Advertising,29( 4), 527-546.
[22] Gong W.., & Li , X. ( 2017). Engaging fans on microblog: The synthetic influence of parasocial interaction and source characteristics on celebrity endorsement. Psychology & Marketing,34( 7), 720-732.
[23] Hayes A.F . ( 2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Journal of Educational Measurement,51( 3), 335-337.
[24] Hazari S., Bergiel B. J., & Sethna B. N . ( 2017). Hedonic and utilitarian use of user-generated content on online shopping websites. Journal of Marketing Communications,23( 6), 572-591.
[25] Hoption C., Barling J., & Turner N . ( 2013). “it's not you, it's me”: Transformational leadership and self-deprecating humor. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,34( 1), 4-19.
[26] Huang M. X., Lei L., & Zhu H. W . ( 2016). Money or romance: How should companies lead consumers in we-media sharing? Acta Psychologica Sinica,48( 2), 211-220.
[ 黄敏学, 雷蕾, 朱华伟 . ( 2016). 谈钱还是谈情:企业如何引导消费者分享自媒体营销. 心理学报,48( 2), 211- 220.]
[27] Hung K., Chan K. W., & Tse C. H . ( 2011). Assessing celebrity endorsement effects in china: A consumer- celebrity relational approach. Journal of Advertising Research,51( 4), 608-623.
[28] Iyengar R., Bulte C. V. D., & Valente T. W . ( 2011). Opinion leadership and social contagion in new product diffusion. Marketing Science,30( 2), 195-212.
[29] Iyengar R., Bulte C. V. D., & Lee J. Y . ( 2015). Social contagion in new product trial and repeat. Marketing Science,34( 3), 408-429
[30] Kozinets R. V., Valck K. D., Wojnicki A. C., & Wilner S. J. S. . ( 2010). Networked narratives: Understanding word-of- mouth marketing in online communities. Journal of Marketing,74( 2), 71-89.
[31] Luo L., Chen X., Han J., & Park C. W . ( 2010). Dilution and enhancement of celebrity brands through sequential movie releases. Journal of Marketing Research,47( 6), 1114-1128.
[32] Martin R. A., Puhlik-Doris P., Larsen G., Gray J., & Weir K . ( 2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor styles questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality,37( 1), 48-75.
[33] Mittelstaedt J. D., Riesz P. C., & Burns W. J . ( 2000). Why are endorsements effective? Sorting among theories of product and endorser effects. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising,22( 1), 55-65.
[34] Mishra A. S., Roy S., & Bailey A. A . ( 2015). Exploring brand personality-celebrity endorser personality congruence in celebrity endorsements in the Indian context. Psychology & Marketing,32( 12), 1158-1174.
[35] Moore, S. G . ( 2015). Attitude predictability and helpfulness in online reviews: The role of explained actions and reactions. Journal of Consumer Research,42( 1), 30-44.
[36] Newman G. E., Diesendruck G., & Bloom P . ( 2011). Celebrity contagion and the value of objects. Journal of Consumer Research,38( 2), 215-228.
[37] Ran K.., & Zheng , Y. ( 2017). The effects of promotions on hedonic versus utilitarian purchases. Journal of Consumer Psychology,27( 1), 59-68.
[38] Roobina O. ( 1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers' perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising,19( 3), 39-52.
[39] S??ksj?rvi M., Hellén K., & Balabanis G . ( 2016). Sometimes a celebrity holding a negative public image is the best product endorser. European Journal of Marketing,50( 3-4), 421-441.
[40] Simona B., & Mcgill, A. L . ( 2011). The locus of choice: Personal causality and satisfaction with hedonic and utilitarian decisions. Journal of Consumer Research,37( 6), 1065-1078.
[41] Vinerean S., Opreana A., Cetina I., & Dumitrescu L . ( 2015). Relationships among hedonic and utilitarian factors and exogenous and endogenous influences of consumer behavior in tourism. Expert Journal of Marketing,3( 1), 17-28.
[42] Yang Y., Gu Y J., & Galak J . ( 2016). When it could have been worse, it gets better: How favorable uncertainty resolution slows hedonic adaptation. Journal of Consumer Research,43( 5), 747-768.
[43] Yim M. Y. C., Yoo S. C., Sauer P. L., & Seo J. H . ( 2014). Hedonic shopping motivation and co-shopper influence on utilitarian grocery shopping in superstores. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,42( 5), 528-544.
[44] Zhao X. S., Lynch J. G Jr.., & Chen Q. M . ( 2010). Reconsidering baron and kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research,37( 2), 197-206.
[45] Zhu H. W., Zhang Y. Y., & Gong X . ( 2017). Does company’s humor resolve consumer complaining: The match of humor types and relationship norms. Acta Psychologica Sinica,49( 4), 526-538.
[ 朱华伟, 张艳艳, 龚璇 . ( 2017). 企业幽默能否化解消费者抱怨:幽默类型与关系范式的匹配. 49, 49( 4), 526- 538.]
[46] Zsolt K., Peter P. Z., & Miklos S . ( 2011). Network effects and personal influences: The diffusion of an online social network. Journal of Marketing Research,48( 3), 425-443.
[1] 李宝珠, 魏少木.  广告诉求形式对产品反馈的影响作用: 基于眼动的证据[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(1): 69-81.
[2] 崔楠;徐岚;谢雯婷. 做会后悔还是不做会后悔?——自我调节模式对不作为惯性的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(4): 423-434.
[3] 魏华;汪涛;周宗奎;冯文婷;丁倩. 叠音品牌名称对消费者知觉和偏好的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(11): 1479-1488.
[4] 杜晓梦;赵占波;崔晓. 评论效价、新产品类型与调节定向对在线评论有用性的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2015, 47(4): 555-568.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
版权所有 © 《心理学报》编辑部
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发  技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn