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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (8): 892-906    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00892
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赢分与输分运动员面孔表情和身体姿势情绪的加工机制
王丽丽1,冯文锋2(),贾丽娜3,朱湘茹4,罗文波5,杨苏勇6,罗跃嘉7,8()
1淮阴师范学院教育科学学院, 淮安 223300
2 苏州大学教育学院心理系, 苏州 215123
3 江南大学人文学院, 无锡 214122
4 河南大学 认知, 脑与健康研究所, 开封 475004
5 辽宁师范大学脑与认知神经科学研究中心, 大连 116029
6 上海体育学院运动健身科技省部共建教育部重点实验室, 上海 200438
7 深圳大学心理与社会学院; (8)深圳大学 深圳市情绪与社会认知科学重点实验室, 深圳 518060
Emotional processing of winning and losing facial expression and body posture
WANG Lili1,FENG Wenfeng2(),JIA Lina3,ZHU Xiangru4,LUO Wenbo5,YANG Suyong6,LUO Yue-jia7,8()
1 School of Educational Science, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300, China
2 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Jiangsu 215000, China
3 School of Humanities, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
4 Institute of Cognition, Brain and Health, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
5 Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
6 Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China
7 College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
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摘要 

本研究采用中国运动员赢分和输分后的表情, 通过行为学和脑电技术比较面孔表情和身体姿势的加工机制。实验1探讨了赢分与输分面孔和身体的效价和强度, 实验2考察了图片的情绪类型(中性、快乐、悲伤、愤怒、恐惧、厌恶), 实验3采用脑电技术比较了赢分和输分情绪的神经机制。3个实验的行为结果表明, 相比面孔, 身体信息更能区分赢分和输分的效价, 而且身体姿势传递的情绪内容相对单一, 面孔表情传递的情绪内容相对复杂和多样化。脑电实验的结果表明, 身体的情绪信息能更早地被大脑识别, 表现在N170成分上, 面孔表情的情绪效应, 反映在EPN成分上。在加工的晚期, 面孔和身体条件下, 均观测到胜利比失败表情诱发了更大的LPP成分。结果表明, 大脑在多个阶段对身体姿势进行情绪评估与分类, 为行为上身体对效价的高区分性提供了证据。

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王丽丽
冯文锋
贾丽娜
朱湘茹
罗文波
杨苏勇
罗跃嘉
关键词 身体姿势面孔表情事件相关电位    
Abstract

For humans, both face and body play important roles in conveying emotional information. Previous studies showed that body postures rather than faces could provide more valid information about valence in the recognition of victory and defeat. The present study aimed to compare the processing of the faces and the bodies of victory and defeat.

The current study employed emotional expressions of Chinese professional players reacting to victory or defeat to compare the processing of emotional faces and body postures using behavioral and ERP recordings. 80 images (40 winners and 40 losers) were obtained through Google and Baidu image search, using the search keyword “reacting to winning a point” or “reacting to losing a point”, intersected with “tennis” or “table tennis” or “badminton”. In Experiment 1, the behavioral experiment asked participants to rate the valence and intensity of the faces and the body postures on a 9 point scale (valence: 1-the most negative and 9-the most positive; intensity: 1-the least intense and 9-the most intense). In Experiment 2, participants were asked to determine the type of emotion (neutral, happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust) expressed by the faces and the body postures. In the ERP study (Experiment 3), participants were instructed to indicate the valence (positive or negative) of the faces and the body postures.

The behavioral results showed that body postures rather than faces facilitated the discrimination between victory and defeat. Compared to body postures, the faces were more complex and involved a variety of facial expressions. The behavioral result of the ERP study showed that body postures rather than faces could provide more valid information about valence. The ERP results showed that the emotional information of body postures could be detected earlier than faces, as reflected by larger N170 amplitudes for winning body postures than losing body postures. However, there was no significant N170 difference between winning faces and losing faces. The emotional effect of faces was reflected by the EPN component, and losing faces elicited larger negative EPN amplitudes than winning faces. On the contrary, winning body postures elicited larger negative EPN amplitudes than losing body postures. Moreover, victory elicited larger LPP amplitudes than defeat under both face and body conditions.

These data suggest that the higher rate of discrimination between winning body postures and losing body postures is possibly due to the stimulus evaluation and categorization of body postures at multiple stages of processing. It is hoped that the current results regarding the emotional processing of facial and body expressions will help us understand the mechanisms of the emotional brain.

Key wordsbody posture    facial expression    ERP
收稿日期: 2017-04-06      出版日期: 2018-07-02
中图分类号:  B842  
基金资助:* 江苏省教育科学‘十三五’规划2016重点资助课题《基于大数据对中小学生考试焦虑干预方法的比较分析》阶段性成果, 课题批准文号:C-a/2016/01/07、江苏高校青蓝工程项目、国家自然科学基金项目资助(31771200);江苏省自然科学基金项目资助(BK20160171);江苏省高等学校大学生实践创新项目《基于大数据对中小学生考试焦虑干预方法的比较分析》
引用本文:   
王丽丽, 冯文锋, 贾丽娜, 朱湘茹, 罗文波, 杨苏勇, 罗跃嘉. (2018). 赢分与输分运动员面孔表情和身体姿势情绪的加工机制. 心理学报, 50(8): 892-906.
WANG Lili, FENG Wenfeng, JIA Lina, ZHU Xiangru, LUO Wenbo, YANG Suyong, LUO Yue-jia. (2018). Emotional processing of winning and losing facial expression and body posture. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(8), 892-906.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00892      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I8/892
  实验1流程图
注:A: 实验流程示例; B: 实验材料示例, 1为赢分面孔, 2为赢分身体, 3为赢分原始图片, 4为输分面孔, 5为输分身体, 6为输分原始图片
  实验1效价和强度的评分结果
  实验2流程图(A)和情绪类型判断结果(B)
条件中性快乐悲伤愤怒恐惧厌恶χ2 (df)p
面孔赢分10.83 ± 10.2432.92 ± 14.3318.75 ± 10.4727.29 ± 12.094.38 ± 5.105.83 ± 5.2041.12 (5)< 0.001
面孔输分10.00 ± 7.1717.71 ± 6.6436.04 ± 14.3011.46 ± 6.873.13 ± 3.8121.67 ± 13.3340.04 (5)< 0.001
身体赢分3.33 ± 3.5483.54 ± 11.692.08 ± 3.518.75 ± 6.761.88 ± 4.240.42 ± 1.10257.70 (4)< 0.001
身体输分33.33 ± 21.958.96 ± 7.0430.42 ± 16.0214.79 ± 9.052.50 ± 4.4910.00 ± 14.2944.24 (5)< 0.001
  不同实验条件下情绪类型判断的百分比 (平均数 ± 标准差)
  实验3流程图(A)和行为结果(B为反应类型所占比率的结果, C为反应时结果)
  P1、N170、EPN和LPP成分的地形图
注:彩图见电子版
  P1、N170和EPN成分的ERP波形图
  LPP成分波形图
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