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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (8): 848-857    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00848
     “以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展”专栏 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
锚定效应助推国民身心健康:两个现场实验
王晓庄1(),安晓镜2,骆皓爽3,徐晟1,于馨4,胡施雅1,王玉涵1
1 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074
2 邢台学院教科部, 河北邢台 054001
3 中国科学院心理研究所心理健康重点实验室, 北京 100101
4 天津师范大学学生心理健康教育中心, 天津 300384
Anchoring effect as a nudge on improving public health: Two field experiments
WANG Xiaozhuang1(),AN Xiaojing2,LUO Haoshuang3,XU Sheng1,YU Xin4,HU Shiya1,WANG Yuhan 1
1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
2 Department of Education Science, Xingtai College, Xingtai 054001, China
3 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4 Mental Health Education Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300384, China
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摘要 

从高个体关联且激发深度加工的锚值设计思路出发, 在老年人及青少年身心健康领域开展现场助推实验, 探索内部锚与精细锚的设计方法及其有效性。实验1探讨积极怀旧内部锚对老年人情绪状态和幸福感的影响。采用两因素混合设计, 通过10周怀旧故事分享建立老年人积极怀旧内部锚(积极怀旧故事数), 检验积极怀旧内部锚对情绪状态及幸福感的作用。结果显示, 积极怀旧组的积极情绪及幸福感水平显著高于自由怀旧组。实验2探讨精细锚对中学生体育活动坚持性的影响。被试分别阅读精细锚、粗略区间锚和无锚条件的个性化“激励贴士”后进行体育活动测试, 结果发现, 精细锚组坚持激励度自评及成绩提升比均高于其他组。综合分析表明, 内部锚和精细锚设计能够对人们身心健康起到积极助推作用。锚值与个体关联且激发深度加工, 进而引发情绪情感及动机变化是产生影响的机制。本研究对于提升老年人和青少年身心健康及丰富其途径和方法具有现实意义。

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王晓庄
安晓镜
骆皓爽
徐晟
于馨
胡施雅
王玉涵
关键词 锚定效应内部锚精细锚助推    
Abstract

Anchoring effect refers to the phenomenon that a target estimation was influenced by the numerical anchor value in the way that the final judgment would be close to the anchor value. Previous studies have found that external anchor could improve ones' attitudes and behaviors that may promote their physical and mental health. However, studies about other anchor types were not being found in the literature.

Anchor values ??that are highly personally relevant can stimulate deep processing. The current study integrated anchor value with prevention science, conducted two on-site experiments that focused on the physical and mental health of older adults and adolescents, and explored design options of internal anchors and fine anchors and their effectiveness in improving outcomes.

Experiment 1 examined the effect of positive nostalgia on the emotional state and well-being of older adults. A two-factor mixed design was adopted. A positive nostalgic internal anchor (the number of positive reminiscences) was built through 10-week nostalgic story sharing. 80 senior citizens participated in 10 weeks’ interventions of compelling narrative life sharing (positive nostalgia condition) and collecting life stories (free nostalgia condition). The subjects shared two stories per week about different topics. The first experiment tested whether the positive nostalgia of internal anchors had any effect on positive emotions and happiness. The results showed that, the number of pleasant and inspirational stories (positive internal anchor) in positive nostalgia group was significantly higher than those in the free nostalgia group. The positive mood and well-being of the positive nostalgia group (intervention group) were significantly higher than those of the free nostalgia group (control).

Experiment 2 examined the influence of fine anchor on persistence of physical activity among middle school students. There were three study conditions: fine anchors, rough interval anchors and no anchors. According to their base line performance in plank and 2 minutes rope skipping, 180 adolescents were divided into 3 groups Individualized “motivation tips” were delivered before the second experiment. It was found that the self-reported persistence levels and improvement rates were higher among students in the fine anchor group than those of the other two groups. Results of comprehensive analysis showed that the designed internal anchors and fine anchors played an active role in promoting physical and mental health among older adults and adolescents.

The study provided evidence that self-generating internal anchor or fine anchor for individual promotes positive attitudes and behaviors on physical and mental health. A possible mechanism of the effect could be that the anchor values were personally relevant and could stimulate deep processing, which in turn triggered changes in feelings, emotions, or motives. Results of the study have implications on practical significance for improving the physical and mental health of older adults and adolescents and for increasing ways and methods to improve their health.

Key wordsanchoring effect    internal anchor    fine anchor    nudge
收稿日期: 2017-12-25      出版日期: 2018-07-02
中图分类号:  B849:C91  
基金资助:* 中宣部文化名家暨“四个一批”人才工程专项(2015.12)(14ZDB160);国家社科基金项目(14ZDB160)
引用本文:   
王晓庄, 安晓镜, 骆皓爽, 徐晟, 于馨, 胡施雅, 王玉涵. (2018). 锚定效应助推国民身心健康:两个现场实验. 心理学报, 50(8): 848-857.
WANG Xiaozhuang, AN Xiaojing, LUO Haoshuang, XU Sheng, YU Xin, HU Shiya, WANG Yuhan. (2018). Anchoring effect as a nudge on improving public health: Two field experiments. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(8), 848-857.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00848      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I8/848
主题积极怀旧 主题自由怀旧
1. 童年生活中最快乐的两件事 1. 童年生活中的两件事
2. 早年家庭生活中经历的最开心的两件事 2. 早年家庭生活中经历的两件事
3. 年轻时听过的最励志的、鼓舞您的两首歌 3. 年轻时听过的两首歌
4. 过去工作中让您最有成就感的两件事 4. 过去工作中的两件事
5. 多年前与朋友交往中让您觉得最愉悦的两件事 5. 多年前与朋友交往中经历的两件事
6. 过去生活中乐观面对和战胜困难的两次经历 6. 过去生活中遇到困难的两次经历
7. 早些年曾经去过的让您最愉悦的两个地方 7. 早些年您曾经去过的两个地方
8. 多年前曾经看过的最喜欢的两部电视剧(或电影) 8. 多年前曾经看过的两部电视剧(或电影)
9. 人生岁月中最能鼓励您、支持您的两个人 9. 人生岁月中接触过的两个人
10. 时代变化过程中让您觉得生活更美好的两件事 10. 时代变化过程中经历的两件事
  积极怀旧和自由怀旧主题表述对照表
因变量 怀旧类型 前测 后测
情绪状态 积极 115.03 ± 7.34 83.70 ± 10.43
自由 116.8 ± 6.98 93.80 ± 14.32
幸福感 积极 31.10 ± 3.47 32.85 ± 3.18
自由 30.30 ± 3.93 30.67 ± 4.82
  各种条件下情绪状态和幸福感的描述统计结果
(M ± SD)
  链式中介模型检验
  三种锚值类型激励贴士样例
  成绩提升比比较结果
  目标清晰度分数比较结果
  坚持激励度分数比较结果
  平板支撑项目变量中介效应检验
  跳绳项目变量中介效应检验
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