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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7): 771-781    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00771
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少年夫妻老来伴:夫妻依恋与留守老人孤独感
谢其利1,2,李崇敬3,全小山4,何飞5,江光荣1()
1 华中师范大学心理学院, 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室, 武汉 430079
2 贵州师范学院心理健康教育与咨询中心, 贵阳 550018
3 贵州师范学院心理健康教育与咨询中心, 贵阳 550018
4 安顺学院教育科学学院, 安顺 561000
5 贵阳幼儿师范高等专科学校, 贵阳 550001
Couples when young and companions when aged: The relationship between marital attachment and loneliness of left behind elderly
Qili XIE1,2,Chongjing LI3,Xiaoshan QUAN4,Guangrong JIANG5, 1()
1 School of Psychology, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China
2 Department of Mental health education and consultation center, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, China
3 Department of Mental health education and consultation center, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, China
4 School of Educational Science, Anshun College, Anshun 561000, China
5 Guiyang Children's Normal College, Guiyang 550001, China
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摘要 

为考察留守老人的夫妻依恋及其与孤独感的关系, 采用问卷法对510名留守老人进行调查。结果表明留守老人安全型夫妻依恋比例低于城市老年人, 拒绝型夫妻依恋比例高于城市老年人; 领悟社会支持在留守老人依恋安全和依恋回避与孤独感的关系中起中介作用、领悟社会支持和核心自我评价在留守老人依恋安全和依恋回避与孤独感的关系中起链式多重中介作用, 核心自我评价在留守老人依恋焦虑与孤独感的关系中起部分中介作用。上述结果表明夫妻依恋与留守老人孤独感关系密切, 结果有利于拓展老年人夫妻依恋的研究范围并为降低留守老人孤独感提供参考。

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谢其利
李崇敬
全小山
何飞
江光荣
关键词 夫妻依恋领悟社会支持核心自我评价孤独感留守老人    
Abstract

In rural areas of China, more than 50 million elderly people are left-behind, and they have a strong sense of loneliness. The relationship between husband and wife plays an important role in alleviating the loneliness feeling of the elderly, therefore, it is crucial to understand the association between marital attachment and loneliness of left-behind elderly. Previous study showed that Chinese elderly’s marital attachment was composed in three dimensions: security, avoidance and anxiety. However, the three-dimensional structure of Chinese elderly’s marital attachment has not been tested in the rural elderly population. In addition, the association between Chinese elderly’s loneliness and their three-dimensional marital attachment is also not clear. Therefore, further studies are needed. The current study, firstly, tested the three-dimensional structure of the Chinese elderly’s marital attachment, and secondly, investigated the relationship between marital attachment and loneliness of left-behind elderly.

The Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale, Scale of Perceived Social Support, Core Self-Evaluations Scale, and ULS-8 Loneliness Scale were administered to 510 left-behind elderly from rural areas in China. All cases were randomly assigned to two subsets: one set was for exploratory factor analysis, and the other was for confirmatory factor analysis. The SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 were used for this analysis, and the structural equation model and the bootstrapping analysis were employed to examine the hypothesized mediating model.

The key findings were as follows: (1) the 14-item revised OAMAS showed a three-dimensional construct of attachment, namely security, avoidance, and anxiety; (2) the marital attachment of left-behind elderly could be clustered into three types, including secure marital attachment (37.84%), refusal marital attachment (31.18%), and anxious marital attachment (30.98%). The proportion of secure marital attachment in left-behind elderly was significantly lower than that in community elderly (Z = -5.63, p < 0.001), and the proportion of refusal marital attachment in left-behind elderly was significantly higher than that in community elderly (Z = 7.01, p < 0.001) ; (3) perceived social support fully mediated the association among security attachment, avoidance attachment and loneliness. Perceived social support and core self-evaluations had multiple mediation effects on the association among security attachment, avoidance attachment and loneliness. While the association between anxiety attachment and loneliness was partially mediated by core self-evaluations.

The results indicated that three-dimensional structure of Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale was an effective measurement of marital attachment in left-behind elderly group. There was a close relationship between the marital attachment and loneliness of the left-behind elderly, safe marital attachment could effectively relieve the loneliness of left-behind elderly. The results may help to expand the study range of elderly’s marital attachment, and provide a reference for reducing the loneliness of the left-behind elderly. implications and limitations are discussed.

Key wordsmarital attachment    perceived social support    core self-evaluation    loneliness    left behind elderly
收稿日期: 2017-10-17      出版日期: 2018-05-29
ZTFLH:  B844  
基金资助:* 国家社科基金重大投标项目:国民心理卫生素养及其提升机制与对策资助(16ZDA232)
引用本文:   
谢其利,李崇敬,全小山,何飞,江光荣. 少年夫妻老来伴:夫妻依恋与留守老人孤独感[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 771-781.
Qili XIE,Chongjing LI,Xiaoshan QUAN,Guangrong JIANG, . Couples when young and companions when aged: The relationship between marital attachment and loneliness of left behind elderly. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 771-781.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00771      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I7/771
  假设模型图
依恋维度 安全型夫妻依恋 拒绝型夫妻依恋 焦虑型夫妻依恋
依恋安全中心 0.73 -1.21 0.34
依恋回避中心 -0.94 0.37 0.72
依恋焦虑中心 -0.76 0.12 0.80
留守老人样本数(%) 193 (37.84%) 159 (31.18%) 158 (30.98%)
城市社区老人样本数(%) 244 (56.2%) 50 (11.5%) 140 (32.3%)
  留守老人夫妻依恋类型聚类分析摘要统计表
变量 1.安全型依恋 2.拒绝型依恋 3.焦虑型依恋 F η2 事后比较
领悟社会支持 5.10 (0.77) 4.27 (0.80) 4.67 (0.79) 46.52*** 0.16 1 > 2, 1 > 3, 3 > 2
核心自我评价 2.87 (0.33) 2.62 (0.32) 2.67 (0.36) 24.57*** 0.09 1 > 2, 1 > 3
孤独感 2.21 (0.39) 2.51 (0.31) 2.47 (0.39) 33.31*** 0.12 1 < 2, 1 < 3
  不同夫妻依恋类型留守老人领悟社会支持、核心自我评价和孤独感的差异
变量 M (SD) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1. 依恋安全 3.16 (0.66)
2. 依恋回避 2.41 (0.74) -0.34***
3. 依恋焦虑 2.61 (0.68) -0.19*** 0.52***
4. 家庭支持 4.80 (1.02) 0.39*** -0.25*** -0.15**
5. 朋友支持 4.52 (0.79) 0.28*** -0.16*** -0.08* 0.60***
6. 其他支持 4.78 (0.97) 0.41*** -0.27*** -0.11** 0.74*** 0.52***
7. 领悟社会支持 4.71 (0.86) 0.42*** -0.26*** -0.14** 0.91*** 0.82*** 0.87***
8. 核心自我评价 2.19 (1.12) 0.26*** -0.24*** -0.24*** 0.41*** 0.27*** 0.39*** 0.42***
9. 孤独感 2.35 (0.43) -0.16*** 0.29*** 0.39*** -0.37*** -0.29*** -0.30*** -0.37*** -0.46***
  留守老人各研究变量描述统计及相关分析
  夫妻依恋与留守老人孤独感结构方程模型图注:A1-14是《老年人夫妻依恋问卷》条目; CSE1-3是《核心自我评价量表》打包题目组; Lone1、2是《ULS-8孤独感量表》打包题目组, 图中系数均在0.001水平上显著。
路径 标准化的间接效应估计 95%置信区间
下限 上限
1. 依恋安全—领悟社会支持—孤独感 0.44 × (-0.21) = -0.09 -0.11 -0.08
2. 依恋安全—领悟社会支持—核心自我评价—孤独感 0.44 × 0.53 × (-0.35) = -0.08 -0.11 -0.05
3. 依恋回避—领悟社会支持—孤独感 -0.15 × (-0.21) = 0.03 0.01 0.05
4. 依恋回避—领悟社会支持—核心自我评价—孤独感 -0.15 × 0.53 × (-0.35 ) = 0.03 0.02 0.05
5. 依恋焦虑—核心自我评价—孤独感 -0.23 × (-0.35) = 0.08 0.03 0.16
  领悟社会支持、核心自我评价在夫妻依恋与留守老人孤独感之间中介效应检验的Bootstrap分析
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