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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7): 739-749    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00739
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预期错误在复合恐惧记忆提取消退中的作用
陈伟,李俊娇,曹杨婧文,杨勇,胡琰健,郑希付()
华南师范大学心理学院, 华南师范大学心理应用研究中心, 广东省心理健康与认知科学重点实验室, 广州 510631
Effects of prediction error on post-retrieval extinction of fear to compound stimuli
Wei CHEN,Junjiao LI,Jingwen CAOYANG,Yong YANG,Yanjian Hu,Xifu ZHENG()
School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, Guangzhou 510631, China
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摘要 

基于记忆再巩固理论的提取消退范式被证明是一种有效和颇有前景的消除不良记忆的方法。本研究将预期错误(Prediction Error, PE)应用于提取消退范式中, 采用多感官复合刺激模型(声音 + 图片)作为条件刺激, 以皮电反应作为恐惧反应指标, 考察在提取阶段不同的预期错误设置(无PE、单个负性PE、单个正性PE和多重PE)对条件性恐惧记忆提取消退效果有何差异。结果表明:无PE组和多重PE组出现了恐惧的自发恢复和重建效应, 而负性PE组和正性PE组均没有出现恐惧的自发恢复和重建效应。说明了在对复合恐惧记忆进行提取消退时, 提取阶段适当的PE才能使记忆进入再巩固过程, 随后传统消退达到抑制恐惧返回效果, 提取阶段没有PE或PE量过多都不能达到恐惧消退效果。

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陈伟
李俊娇
曹杨婧文
杨勇
胡琰健
郑希付
关键词 预期错误恐惧消退提取-消退复合刺激    
Abstract

Memories with a strong fear emotional connotation play a pathogenic role in a variety of emotional disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorder and phobia. So how to fundamentally eliminate the acquired fear memory and prevent relapse has been the difficulties of clinical treatment. The retrieval extinction paradigm, which is based on the memory reconsolidation theory, was demonstrated an effective and promising way in eliminating undesired memories. The key of this paradigm is how to retrieve fear memory to undergo reconsolidation, which makes the memory fragile and labile. Research has shown that when a mismatch between what is expected based on previous experiences and the actual state of events at retrieval, the prediction error will occur so that the memory will undergo reconsolidation. In the present study, we change CS-US (conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus) matching rules during the retrieval to manipulate the conditions of PE to explore whether the amount of PE is a crucial factor to open reconsolidation window.

In the current study, two tones and four colored figures were used, one of the tones and two of the figures (CS+) were paired with a mild shock to the wrist (US) on 50% of the trails, while the other figures and tones were never paired with shock (CS-). the skin conductance response (SCR) was the measure of fear. Four groups of participants were fear conditioned on day1 using a 50% reinforcement schedule, in such a way that they could expect the CS to be followed by shock every other trial. During memory reactivation on day2, participants received one unreinforced CS+ (No PE group), two unreinforced CS+ (Negative PE group), two reinforced CS+ (Positive PE group) and four unreinforced CS+ (Multiple PE group) respectively, following extinction training. On day3, participants took part in tests of spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of fear through re-extinction and regaining.

The results showed that the SCR was not significantly different among the four groups in the fear conditioning of the first day and extinction of the second day. However, on the third day, No PE group and Multiple PE group showed increased SCR in spontaneous fear recovery and reinstatement test, whereas Negative PE group and Positive PE group did not show any significant increased SCR in spontaneous fear recovery or reinstatement.

Our study provided further evidence that the behavioral interference during reconsolidation (retrieval- extinction) can effectively eliminate fear and block fear relapse under certain circumstances. According to the results, we demonstrate that the prediction error is a necessary condition of initiating reconsolidation and a lack of prediction error during retrieval will leave the memory trace in an inactive state. Additionally, the amount of PE is a crucial factor and too much prediction error will cause failure. It is inferred that a limited degree of mismatch between the memory and events at the time of retrieval will induce memory destabilization.

Key wordsprediction error    fear extinction    retrieval-extinction    compound stimuli
收稿日期: 2017-08-14      出版日期: 2018-05-29
ZTFLH:  B842  
  B845  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金项目(31771218);国家社会科学基金重大项目(14ZDB259);幸福广州心理服务与辅导基地资助
引用本文:   
陈伟,李俊娇,曹杨婧文,杨勇,胡琰健,郑希付. 预期错误在复合恐惧记忆提取消退中的作用[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 739-749.
Wei CHEN,Junjiao LI,Jingwen CAOYANG,Yong YANG,Yanjian Hu,Xifu ZHENG. Effects of prediction error on post-retrieval extinction of fear to compound stimuli. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 739-749.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00739      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I7/739
  实验流程示意图 注:声音直接播放, 没有呈现在电脑屏幕上。黄色闪电符号代表电击(下同)。彩图见电子版, 下同
  实验条件设置图 注:习得仅呈现CS+的安排规律, 未呈现CS-(CS-为随机出现)
第一天 第二天 第三天
习得3 CS+US 无PE提取 10 min 消退训练 自发恢复测试 1 min 4US 5 min 重建测试
3 CS+ 10 CS+消退 8 CS+ 7 CS+
6 CS- 10 CS-消退 8 CS- 7 CS-
习得 3 CS+US 单个负性PE提取 10 min 消退训练 自发恢复测试 1 min 4US 5 min 重建测试
3 CS+ 10 CS+消退 8 CS+ 7 CS+
6 CS- 10 CS-消退 8 CS- 7 CS-
习得 3 CS+US 单个正性PE提取 10 min 消退训练 自发恢复测试 1 min 4US 5 min 重建测试
3 CS+ 10 CS+消退 8 CS+ 7 CS+
6 CS- 10 CS-消退 8 CS- 7 CS-
习得 3 CS+US 多重PE提取 10 min 消退训练 自发恢复测试 1 min 4US 5 min 重建测试
3 CS+ 10 CS+消退 8 CS+ 7 CS+
6 CS- 10 CS-消退 8 CS- 7 CS-
  实验设计
  习得、消退阶段各组皮电值的变化 注:横坐标A代表习得阶段(Acquisition), E代表消退阶段(Extinction), 数字代表该阶段的试次。
  再消退阶段各组皮电SCR值的变化
  各组自发恢复测试(SCR差值) 注:自发恢复量(SCR差值)=再消退第一个试次SCR值—消退最后一个试次SCR值(Schiller et al., 2010)
  重建后各组皮电SCR值的变化
  各组重建测试(SCR差值) 注:重建测试(SCR差值)=重建后第一个试次SCR值—再消退最后一个试次SCR值(Schiller et al., 2010)
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