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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7): 715-726    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00715
  研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
聋人阅读中的副中央凹视觉注意增强效应——来自消失文本的证据
刘璐1,2,闫国利1()
1 天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074
2 鲁东大学教育科学学院, 烟台 264011
Effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading: Evidence from disappearing text
Lu LIU1,2,Guoli YAN1()
1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
2 School of Education Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264011, China
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摘要 

为适应失聪后的复杂环境, 聋人视觉注意资源的空间分布发生改变, 这对聋人的阅读加工产生了影响。本研究尝试提出“聋人阅读中的副中央凹视觉注意增强效应”, 并采用消失文本范式考察这一效应对聋人读者副中央凹及中央凹处词汇信息视觉编码效率的影响。结果发现, 在词n+1短暂呈现时, 聋生快速编码副中央凹处文本信息的加工效率与其生理年龄匹配组相近, 高于阅读能力匹配组; 但在词n短暂呈现时, 聋生快速编码中央凹处文本信息的加工效率落后于健听控制组, 其词汇通达和总阅读效率均受阻。综上所述, 本研究证实了聋人阅读中的副中央凹视觉注意增强效应, 表现为副中央凹加工效率增强, 但中央凹加工效率受阻。

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刘璐
闫国利
关键词 聋人副中央凹视觉注意增强效应消失文本眼动中文阅读    
Abstract

Visual information is essential to deaf people given their early auditory deprivation. Some researchers have proposed a perspective in which the distribution of deaf visual attention resource shifted from the central to the extrafoveal visual field. This study explores how this unique visual processing ability may influence reading in deaf people and proposes ‘the effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading.’ We hypothesise that visual attention resources are reorganised due to the absence of auditory input for deaf people. This reorganisation increased distribution toward the extrafoveal field, but decreased it in the foveal field, resulting in poor reading efficiency.

A total of 29 severely to profoundly deaf students (DS) from a deaf school in Tianjin participated in the present study. Their hearing loss is ≥ 90 dB in the better ear. Participants are either born deaf or became deaf before three years old, and they use Chinese Sign Language (CSL) as their main communication mode. None of them received a cochlear implant. The age control group (AC) has 29 hearing middle school students, which indicated no significant difference in chronological age with DS. In addition, 29 hearing primary students comprised the reading-level control group (RC). The DS and RC were examined through a series of reading tests, including orthographic judgment task, reading fluency and reading comprehension, to match their reading levels. All participants read Chinese sentences for comprehension as their eye movements were tracked. A total of 48 pairs of target words (48 high frequency and 48 low frequency words) were embedded in two different sentence frames. All sentences consisted of seven or eight double-character words. These sentences were either presented normally or in a disappearing text paradigm that, as each word (n) was fixated, the word (n) or the next word (n + 1) remained visible only for a short period (40 ms) before disappearing. The paradigm was utilised to manipulate the display duration for the parafoveal word n + 1 (Experiment 1) or the foveal word N (Experiment 2) respectively, to compare the efficiency (speed) of encoding visual text information in sentence reading.

In Experiment 1, when word n + 1 was presented briefly (40 ms), the overall sentence reading times were prolonged only for reading-level control group, but no difference was observed between deaf students and age control group. The effect of word frequency on target words was normal for all three groups. By contrast, in Experiment 2, during which word n was presented briefly (40 ms), the overall sentence reading times were prolonged only for deaf students. For gaze duration, the effect of word frequency for target words disappeared for deaf students. Therefore, deaf students showed higher efficiency of encoding parafoveal text information than their reading-level controls in Experiment 1 and were equal to their age controls. However, in Experiment 2, deaf students showed lower efficiency in encoding foveal text information than those in the hearing controls.

In conclusion, the present study confirmed that deaf readers have enhanced parafoveal processing of linguistic information, but their foveal processing was hampered as a consequence. Thus, parafoveal visual attention was enhanced in deaf reading, which may be one of reasons for reading difficulty. Further research is necessary to explore this issue.

Key wordsdeaf    effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading    disappearing text    eye movements    Chinese reading
收稿日期: 2017-04-05      出版日期: 2018-05-29
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助:* 国家社会科学基金项目(16BYY074)
引用本文:   
刘璐,闫国利. 聋人阅读中的副中央凹视觉注意增强效应——来自消失文本的证据[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 715-726.
Lu LIU,Guoli YAN. Effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading: Evidence from disappearing text. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 715-726.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00715      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I7/715
阅读测验项目 DS RC
正字法意识(正确率%) 74.09 (13.00) 73.21 (8.41)
阅读流畅性(字/分) 302.76 (136.04) 314.44 (99.00)
阅读理解(分) 10.86 (2.82) 11.31 (2.34)
  聋生组(DS)与阅读能力匹配组(RC)的阅读能力测验分数[M (SD)]
框架1 高频词(HF) 世界珍稀植物 标本将于明天展出。
低频词(LF) 世界珍稀鸟类 标本将于明天展出。
框架2 高频词(HF) 研究显示每年许多植物 濒临灭绝。
低频词(LF) 研究显示每年许多鸟类 濒临灭绝。
  实验材料举例
  消失文本实验范式举例
眼动指标
(整理分析)
聋生组 阅读能力匹配组 生理年龄匹配组
40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现
总阅读时间(ms) 3795 (1272) 3676 (1232) 4121 (1443) 3869 (1249) 3047 (862) 3065 (914)
跳读率(%) 35 (13) 31 (17) 25 (11) 17 (11) 28 (10) 25 (12)
回视次数(次) 3.08 (1.23) 2.8 (1.38) 2.57 (1.14) 2.62 (1.06) 2.52 (0.98) 2.54 (0.93)
  实验1三组被试在两种文本呈现方式下眼动指标(整体分析) [M (SD)]
眼动指标
(局部分析)
被试类型 呈现条件
40 ms 正常
高频 低频 高频 低频
凝视时间
(ms)
聋生组 294 (64) 311 (72) 286 (69) 287 (76)
阅读能力匹配组 352 (71) 375 (70) 303 (77) 345 (82)
生理年龄匹配组 298 (74) 321 (74) 283 (56) 283 (60)
总注视时间
(ms)
聋生组 518 (154) 579 (173) 521 (124) 549 (161)
阅读能力匹配组 543 (166) 598 (162) 490 (171) 555 (167)
生理年龄匹配组 452 (134) 478 (126) 453 (121) 464 (128)
  实验1三组被试在不同文本呈现条件下眼动指标(局部分析) [M (SD)]
眼动指标
(整体分析)
聋生组 阅读能力匹配组 生理年龄匹配组
40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现
总阅读时间(ms) 4805 (1519) 4340 (1458) 4498 (1295) 4416 (1151) 3622 (1074) 3549 (1122)
跳读率(%) 34 (11) 34 (11) 23 (10) 21 (11) 28 (11) 26 (12)
回视次数(次) 4.78 (1.35) 3.69 (1.76) 4.17 (1.56) 3.17 (0.95) 3.14 (1.18) 2.95 (1.32)
  实验2三组被试在两种文本呈现方式下眼动指标(整体分析) [M (SD)]
眼动指标
(局部分析)
被试类型 呈现条件
40 ms 正常
高频 低频 高频 低频
凝视时间
(ms)
聋生组 282 (75) 272 (67) 262 (77) 304 (126)
阅读能力
匹配组
301 (80) 327 (97) 321 (87) 350 (87)
生理年龄
匹配组
282 (63) 334 (99) 292 (62) 322 (71)
总注视时间
(ms)
聋生组 791 (213) 851 (285) 654 (284) 819 (259)
阅读能力
匹配组
654 (216) 794 (279) 597 (216) 771 (265)
生理年龄
匹配组
560 (223) 622 (185) 537 (176) 599 (199)
  实验2三组被试在不同文本呈现条件下眼动指标(局部分析) [M (SD)]
  三组被试在实验2高、低频目标词区域的凝视时间分析结果
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