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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7): 703-714    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00703
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飞行场景中表征动量的地标吸引效应和排斥效应
晏碧华(),刘晓敏,刘浩哲
陕西师范大学心理学院暨陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062
Landmark attraction effect and landmark repulsion effect on representational momentum in airplane movement scene
Bihua YAN(),Xiaomin LIU,Haozhe LIU
School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi′an 710062, China
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摘要 

设置了安全和危险两种地标, 采用诱导运动范式考察了飞行场景中运动目标和关联地标的相对关系、目标运动方向及关联地标的意义特征和呈现时间对运动目标位置判断的影响。结果显示: (1)飞行场景中飞机的表征动量较强; (2) 趋近安全地标的表征动量大于远离安全地标的表征动量, 趋近危险地标的表征动量小于远离危险地标的表征动量, 安全地标呈现出地标吸引效应, 而危险地标呈现出地标排斥效应; (3) 高关联的安全和危险地标使飞机的表征动量不受运动方向影响; (4) 保持间隔期间呈现的安全和危险地标使飞机的表征动量增加。结论 :表征动量的地标效应受制于地标意义特征, 表征动量受到目标和地标之间的因果关系和情景意义的影响。

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晏碧华
刘晓敏
刘浩哲
关键词 表征动量地标吸引效应地标排斥效应情景向前偏移量    
Abstract

The term representational momentum has been used to describe a forward displacement of the final position of a moving target and also as an explanatory mechanism for that forward displacement. Landmark attraction effect refers to the remembered orientation of a target shifted towards the orientation of a surrounding context object. Previous studies on moving targets and landmarks have been limited to the effects of physical properties, such as the size of the stimulus, or the speed of movement, on the displacement of another object. The present study focused on the effects of the situational significance, the relative relationship between the moving target and the relevant landmark, the movement directions of the target and the presentation time of the landmarks on the judgment of the moving target position.

The inducing movement paradigm was adopted to investigate the representational momentum effect in the flight scene, in which the airplane target and the landmarks were designed as simple line-drawing images. The stationary airstrip and the mountain were classified as safe landmarks and dangerous landmarks, respectively, forming a causal relationship with the aircraft target, which together constituted a specific aircraft movement scene. Four experiments were designed to compare the effects of different landmarks. Experiments 1a and 1b focused on the relationship between the aircraft and the safe landmark or dangerous landmark and the movement direction of the aircraft on the representational momentum, while the landmark remained visible in the induction duration. Experiments 2a and 2b addressed the same variable relationship as in Experiments 1a and 1b except that the landmark was shown during the retention interval.

The findings of the four experiments were as follows. First, significant forward distortions were observed under all conditions with the exception of leftward- toward the dangerous landmark motion, indicating that the representational momentum effect was universal in the flight scene. Second, forward displacement was influenced by target approaches and was larger when targets moved toward the safe landmark than when moving away from the same landmark. In addition, it was also larger when targets moved away from the dangerous landmark than when they moved toward it. The representational momentum of the approaching safe landmark was larger than that of the dangerous landmark, and the momentum of moving away from the safe landmark was smaller than that of the dangerous landmark. In this way, the safe landmark showed landmark an attraction effect, and the dangerous landmark showed a repulsion effect. Third, the direction of movement of the aircraft had no significant effect on the representational momentum, and the representational momentum increased when the safe landmark or the dangerous landmark was shown during the retention interval, demonstrating the effect of the scenario on the directional effect and attention effect of the momentum.

In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that the landmark effect of the representational momentum was influenced by the relevant features of the landmark, which was measured by the causality and the situational significance between the target and the landmark. The memory of the location of the moving object will shift along the direction of the object’s movement, indicating that the momentum effect is difficult to eliminate. However, when there are other related objects (landmarks) in the scene, the nature and the importance of the object has an impact on people’s judgment.

Key wordsrepresentational momentum    landmark attraction effect    landmark repulsion effect    scene    forward displacement
收稿日期: 2017-07-01      出版日期: 2018-05-29
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助:* 教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金(14YJA190012);陕西省重点实验室后补助培育建设项目资助(2016SZsj-29)
引用本文:   
晏碧华,刘晓敏,刘浩哲. 飞行场景中表征动量的地标吸引效应和排斥效应[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 703-714.
Bihua YAN,Xiaomin LIU,Haozhe LIU. Landmark attraction effect and landmark repulsion effect on representational momentum in airplane movement scene. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 703-714.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00703      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I7/703
  实验1a中trial程序示意图
  不同相对关系中各探测位置“相同”反应百分比(实验1a)
  实验1b中trial程序示意图(从左到右趋近)
  不同相对关系中各探测位置“相同”反应百分比(实验1b)
  不同相对关系中各探测位置“相同”反应百分比(实验2a)
  不同相对关系中各探测位置“相同”反应百分比(实验2b)
  八种处理条件下的偏移加权均数
  运动客体-地标相对关系和地标情景的交互作用图
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