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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7): 693-702    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00693
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美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响
尚俊辰1,刘智慧1,陈文锋2,3(),傅小兰3,4
1 辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029
2 中国人民大学心理学系, 北京 100872
3 中国科学院心理研究所, 脑与认知科学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
4 中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
Influence of aesthetics on unconscious processing of western paintings
Junchen SHANG1,Zhihui LIU1,Wenfeng CHEN2,3(),Xiaolan FU3,4
1 School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
2 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
3 State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要 

采用连续闪烁抑制范式(Continuous Flash Suppression, CFS), 通过比较不同美感的图片的突破抑制时间,考察了美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响。实验1使用黑白噪音图片, 通过单因素被试内设计考察了高、中、低三种美感等级的彩色西方绘画的突破抑制时间。结果发现, 美感高和美感中等的西方绘画比美感低的西方绘画能更快突破噪音图片的抑制进入意识。实验2考察在彩色噪音图片的抑制下, 美感是否依然影响彩色西方绘画突破抑制的时间。结果发现, 美感不影响西方绘画突破抑制时间, 且突破抑制时间显著长于实验1。这些结果表明美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响受到双眼竞争的眼间抑制过程的限制, 只有在黑白噪音图抑制的情况下, 美感会影响西方绘画进入意识的速度。与黑白噪音图片相比, 彩色噪音图片可能对颜色信息的抑制更强, 干扰了美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响。

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尚俊辰
刘智慧
陈文锋
傅小兰
关键词 美感双眼竞争连续闪烁抑制西方绘画无意识加工    
Abstract

People prefer beautiful visual artworks. Aesthetic experiences to beautiful and ugly images are different. Studies on neuroaesthetics showed different neural responses to beautiful stimuli compared to ugly stimuli. The first stage of aesthetic experience of a visual artwork is visual perception of the stimulus. Most research about aesthetic processing focused on stimuli presented consciously. Little is known about whether aesthetic processing can occur unconsciously. Previous research suggested that both beautiful paintings and attractive faces can elicit activation of the reward circuitry in our brain. Attractive faces break through continuous flash suppression more quickly than unattractive faces. Thus, it is possible that unconscious processing of beautiful paintings is different from that of less beautiful paintings. In two experiments, the present study adopted continuous flash suppression paradigm to investigate whether aesthetic ratings of western paintings influenced the time for stimuli to break suppression. We also compared the suppression effect of achromatic (Experiment 1) and chromatic (Experiment 2) noise pictures.

In Experiment 1, 20 participants (8 females, 12 males) took part in the experiment. The independent variable was aesthetic rating of western paintings (high, average, and low). The achromatic suppression noises were presented to the participants’ dominant eye and continued to flash at 10 Hz. A western painting was presented to the nondominant eye, at either above or below the central cross, with contrast increasing from 0 to 100% within 1s and remaining constant until response. Participants were instructed to respond as accurately and quickly as possible when any part of the painting was detected, and report whether the target was presented above or below the cross. 18 participants (9 females, 9 males) took part in Experiment 2. Experiment 2 was identical with Experiment 1 except that chromatic suppression noises were presented to the dominant eye.

The results of Experiment 1 showed that paintings with low aesthetic ratings took significantly longer time to break into awareness, comparing to paintings with average and high aesthetic ratings. The reaction times were not significantly different between paintings with average and high aesthetic ratings. In Experiment 2, however, the times for breaking suppression were not significantly different among the three categories of paintings. Moreover, the effect of suppression was different between different noises, such that reaction times were longer under suppression by chromatic noises (Experiment 2) than achromatic noises (Experiment 1).

These results suggested different unconscious processing of western paintings with different aesthetic ratings. Similar to attractive faces, paintings with high and average aesthetic ratings were easier to be detected under suppression. Our findings provided evidence that aesthetic processing can occur unconsciously under suppression by achromatic noises. The present study also suggested that the suppression effect of achromatic noises is different from that of chromatic noises. Chromatic noises may interfere with the color information of paintings and disrupt the aesthetic perception of paintings.

Key wordsaesthetic judgments    binocular rivalry    continuous flash suppression    western paintings    unconscious processing
收稿日期: 2017-06-15      出版日期: 2018-05-29
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金项目(31400869);国家自然科学基金项目(31371031);国家自然科学基金项目(61632004);国家自然科学基金项目(61375009);中国国家自然科学基金委和德国基金会中德合作项目(NSFC 61621136008/DFG TRR-169);辽宁省教育厅项目(L201683685);2016年“中国科学院大学生创新实践训练计划”
引用本文:   
尚俊辰,刘智慧,陈文锋,傅小兰. 美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 693-702.
Junchen SHANG,Zhihui LIU,Wenfeng CHEN,Xiaolan FU. Influence of aesthetics on unconscious processing of western paintings. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 693-702.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00693      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I7/693
  愉悦度评价 注:图1所示的评价界面和西方绘画同时呈现, 图片中的小人特点代表了不同程度的愉悦度, 下方的数字1代表最不愉快, 5代表中性, 9代表最愉快
  唤醒度评价 注:图2所示的评价界面和西方绘画同时呈现, 图片中的小人特点代表了不同程度的唤醒度, 下面的数字1代表最不清醒、不兴奋、不紧张, 5代表中性, 既没有清醒或兴奋, 也没有不清醒或不兴奋的感觉, 9代表最清醒、最兴奋、最紧张.
美感等级 唤醒度 愉悦度 美感
M SD M SD M SD
美感低 5.00 0.31 4.96 0.14 4.00 0.47
美感中等 4.77 0.25 4.96 0.13 4.79 0.06
美感高 5.03 0.26 5.07 0.11 5.46 0.44
  筛选的18张西方绘画的唤醒度、愉悦度和美感的评分均值和标准差
  实验1和实验2的刺激和实验流程。在实验1中, 优势眼呈现黑白噪音图(第二列), 实验2中, 优势眼呈现彩色噪音图(第三列), 噪音图每100 ms切换1次。在非优势眼呈现对比度从0开始逐渐增加的目标图片, 随机呈现在注视点“+”上下两边的任意一边(第一列)。目标图片的对比度每100 ms提高10%, 在1 s内升高到100%, 然后保持不变。图中对比度最小的图片是10%对比度。直到被试按键或者6 s内没有按键, 刺激消失。彩图见电子版。
  实验1:使用黑白噪音图片, 被试对低、中、高三组美感图片的突破抑制时间. * p < 0.05
  实验1:使用黑白噪音图片, 每名被试对低、中等、高三组美感图片的突破抑制时间. * p < 0.05
  实验2:使用彩色噪音图片, 被试对低、中等、高三组美感图片的突破抑制时间.
  实验2:使用彩色噪音图片, 每名被试对低、中等、高三组美感图片的突破抑制时间.
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