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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (6): 637-646    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00637
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孤独症青少年的情绪韵律注意偏向缺陷:低效率的知觉模式
胡金生1(),李骋诗1,王琦1,李松泽1,李涛涛1,刘淑清2
1 辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029
2 大连医科大学基础医学院, 大连 116044
The deficiency of attention bias to emotional prosody in the teenagers with autism spectrum disorders: A perceptual mode of low efficiency
Jinsheng HU1(),Chengshi LI1,Qi WANG1,Songze LI1,Taotao LI1,Shuqing LIU2
1 School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China
2 College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China
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摘要 

情绪注意偏向是指与中性刺激相比, 情绪刺激会引起个体的优先加工。为了探讨ASD青少年听觉通道的情绪注意偏向是否存在缺陷, 并进一步考察目标任务的知觉负载水平是否影响ASD青少年情绪韵律的注意偏向, 研究先后采用oddball范式、双任务范式呈现中性、快乐和愤怒韵律。实验1结果发现, ASD被试在不同情绪韵律类别下的反应时均长于TD被试。实验2结果发现, 在提供注意指示条件下, 即使在高知觉负载水平上, ASD被试的情绪韵律检测能力及错误率也与普通被试相似, 但对于情绪韵律的反应时与中性韵律无差异。结果表明, 知觉负载对ASD青少年情绪韵律注意偏向的影响是有限度的, 该群体听觉通道的情绪注意偏向存在缺陷, 主要表现为对情绪韵律知觉效率的相对低下。

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胡金生
李骋诗
王琦
李松泽
李涛涛
刘淑清
关键词 孤独症谱系障碍青少年情绪韵律注意偏向知觉负载    
Abstract

Emotional attention bias refers that emotional stimuli usually get priority of attention over the neutral stimuli, which has been frequently replicated in normal participants. However, previous studies reported that teenagers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had atypical attention patterns of processing emotional faces and pictures, that is, their first attention was located at the neutral stimuli instead of the emotional stimuli. According to the perceptual load theory, some studies demonstrated the deficiency of attention bias to emotions in the teenagers with ASD was due to the perceptual load of the main task was too high for them, so that they can’t process the emotion. Till now, little has been known about the ASD teenagers’ attention in processing auditory emotional stimuli, although emotional expression also actually depends on the changes of acoustic cues in the speech prosody. To testify the generality of attention bias to cross-model emotions in the teenagers with ASD, we extended the experimental materials to emotional prosody. In present study, 14 teenagers with ASD and 17 typical developing (TD) people were recruited in two experiments. The participants were required to complete a main task while the emotional prosody voices were presented as the deviated task-irrelevant stimuli. In Experiment 1, the participants were instructed to ignore sounds and to classify the pictures. In Experiment 2, we adopted a dual-task paradigm, which required participants to respond to the target letters first and then to point whether they hear the novel emotional prosody. And in experiment 2, we also manipulated the level of perceptual load through changing the similarity between the letters in virtual round.

Results showed that: (1) Reaction time of ASD subjects were longer than TD subjects under any different emotions rhyme categories. (2) Whether in high or low perceptual load, reaction times and error rates of the main task as well as accuracy of emotional prosody detection task between two groups of participants have no significant differences. In providing notice indicating conditions, even in a high perceptual load level, ASD subjects of emotional rhythm detection capability and error rates are similar to TD subjects, but for emotional rhythm react time with neutral rhythm no difference. These findings revealed that ASD have the similar attention processing level with TD in attention conditions.

The results of two studies strongly suggested that the attention bias to emotional prosody was deficient in the teenagers with ASD, which was consistent with the results from visual channels and the teenagers with ASD have defect on emotional attention bias in auditory channel, main showed low perception efficiency on emotional rhythm perception.

Key wordsautism spectrum disorders    teenagers    emotional prosody    attention bias    perceptual load
收稿日期: 2017-01-09      出版日期: 2018-04-28
中图分类号:  B842  
  R395  
基金资助:辽宁特聘教授基金、辽宁省社会科学基金项目资助(L17DSH001)
通讯作者: 胡金生     E-mail: hu_jinsheng@126.com
作者简介: 胡金生为共同第一作者|李骋诗为共同第一作者
引用本文:   
胡金生, 李骋诗, 王琦, 李松泽, 李涛涛, 刘淑清. (2018). 孤独症青少年的情绪韵律注意偏向缺陷:低效率的知觉模式. 心理学报, 50(6): 637-646.
Jinsheng HU, Chengshi LI, Qi WANG, Songze LI, Taotao LI, Shuqing LIU. (2018). The deficiency of attention bias to emotional prosody in the teenagers with autism spectrum disorders: A perceptual mode of low efficiency. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(6), 637-646.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00637      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I6/637
基本情况 ASD (n = 14) TD (n = 17) t p
年龄(岁) 16.93 (1.194) 16.18 (0.53) 0.92 0.365
韦氏言语智力 96.07 (9.54) 102.00 (9.27) -1.74 0.091
韦氏操作智力 102.93 (11.61) 108.65 (8.49) -1.58 0.124
韦氏全量表智力 102.36 (12.33) 107.65 (9.72) -1.34 0.192
  被试样本的基本情况M (SD)
  实验材料及实验流程图注:第一行为目标任务图片, 第二行为韵律声音, 同时呈现200 ms; 黑色为中性韵律, 绿色为快乐韵律, 红色为愤怒韵律; 第三行为正确反应。彩图见电子版。
  单个试次流程图
统计指标 ASD组 TD组
愤怒 快乐 中性 愤怒 快乐 中性
反应时(ms) 589.16 (120.03) 588.97 (129.68) 586.87 (71.99) 425.73 (99.65) 430.03 (113.75) 401.26 (105.77)
错误率 0.16 (0.12) 0.15 (0.10) 0.12 (0.09) 0.06 (0.04) 0.05 (0.04) 0.05 (0.03)
  两组被试在oddball任务中的反应时和错误率M (SD)
  两组被试在三种韵律条件下图片判断的平均反应时(A)和错误率(B)
  情绪韵律的单个试次流程图(以高知觉负载条件为例)
负载 TD组(ms) ASD组(ms)
愤怒 快乐 中性 愤怒 快乐 中性
618.84 (127.41) 654.02 (144.84) 553.12 (83.09) 648.98 (135.02) 632.25 (140.32) 593.60 (111.13)
863.93 (143.28) 753.06 (151.50) 748.23 (154.48) 839.98 (127.54) 819.49 (82.68) 797.96 (108.23)
  两组被试在字母判断任务中的反应时M (SD)
  不同韵律和知觉负载水平条件下TD组(A)和ASD组(B)字母判断的平均反应时
  不同韵律和知觉负载水平条件下TD组(A)和ASD组(B)字母判断的平均错误率
负载 TD组 ASD组
愤怒 快乐 中性 愤怒 快乐 中性
0.19 (0.17) 0.13 (0.11) 0.07 (0.05) 0.24 (0.18) 0.16 (0.14) 0.08 (0.06)
0.49 (0.18) 0.40 (0.14) 0.36 (0.13) 0.46 (0.06) 0.40 (0.16) 0.37 (0.06)
  两组被试在字母判断任务中的错误率M (SD)
负载 TD组 ASD组
愤怒 快乐 中性 愤怒 快乐 中性
100% (2.4%) 93.33% (2.1%) 100% (1.8%) 93.33% (3.3%) 93.33% (2.3%) 100% (2.1%)
86.67% (2.0%) 93.33% (1.9%) 100% (2.7%) 86.67% (3.0%) 80.00% (1.6%) 100% (2.8%)
  两组被试在不同知觉负载水平下情绪韵律的平均检测率M (SD)
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