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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (5): 558-571    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00558
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 旁观者对集体行动的支持:目标合理性、 行动策略及目标实现预期的作用
 殷融
 (潍坊学院教师教育学院, 山东 潍坊 261061)
 When will bystanders support collective actions? The roles of claim legitimacy, protest tactic and expectations of achieving goals
 YIN Rong
 (School of Teacher Education, Weifang University, Weifang 261061, China)
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摘要  本研究采用实验研究的方式, 考察了旁观者对集体行动支持的前因变量, 探讨了目标合理性、行动策略及目标实现预期等因素对旁观者态度反应的影响。研究结果显示:1)目标合理性对旁观者支持的影响受行动策略因素的调节, 当集体行动采用的是非暴力策略时, 目标合理性对旁观者支持具有显著正向作用, 当集体行动采用的是暴力策略时, 目标合理性对旁观者支持的正向作用不显著; 2)当集体行动采取暴力策略时, 目标合理性对旁观者支持态度的影响受目标实现预期因素的调节, 在低实现预期情况下, 目标合理性对旁观者支持具有显著正向作用, 而在高实现预期情况下, 目标合理性对旁观者支持则不具有显著影响作用。
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殷融
关键词 集体行动 旁观者 目标合理性 非暴力行动 暴力行动    
Abstract: The success of protest in achieving its original aims may depend primarily on the events’ extent which shape public opinion. Collective action may play a significant and indirect role in influencing social change through changing public opinion. Partly, the success of a movement may derive from mobilizing the public to perceive a current context as illegitimate and turning bystanders into supporters. Though there is vast literature on the psychological factors promoting collective action, little is known about how collective actions influence a broader non-protesting community. The obtained articles mainly focus on the processes or mechanisms underpinning bystanders’ support for the social movement. We explored the effects of three key factors in shaping bystanders’ endorsements. This paper contains three experiments conducted to examine our hypothesis that participants were presented in a news article describing an instance of social protest during these studies. The details of the news were different in each group. Study1 was a 2(claim legitimacy: high vs. low) × 2 (protest tactics: violent vs. non-violent) design. Study2 was a 2(claim legitimacy: high vs. low) × 2 (protest tactics: violent vs. non-violent) × 2(expectation of achieving goals: high vs. low) design. Participants were asked to indicate their perceptions of the claim legitimacy, their support for the protests and other questions. Study 3 followed the pattern of Study2, but the background event was different. Results of Study1 showed that protests with legitimate claims were more supported than those with illegitimate claims in contexts of non-violent tactics. Meanwhile, there was only marginal difference of endorsements between participants in high-legitimacy group and low-legitimacy group when collective actions were violent. Study2 showed that in context of violent tactics, participants’ expectations of achieving goals could moderate the relation between claim legitimacy and their endorsements for collective actions. Participants’ supports for violent actions were positively predicted by claim legitimacy when there were little possibilities to achieve goals. However, this effect didn’t exist when possibilities of achieving goals were high. While in contexts of non-violent tactics, expectations of achieving goals did not affect participants’ endorsements for collective action. Only the factor of claim legitimacy was effective. The results of sStudy3 revalidated the results of Study2. The conclusions of the research is as following. First, legitimacy of the claims is the primary factor affecting bystanders’ support for collective action. Only when the protest’s aims accord with moral standards of the public will it gain the endorsements of public. Second, the use of violent tactics could even reduce bystanders’ endorsements of those protests with very legitimate claims. Violence may be seen as an action of alienation from the mainstream,which undermines the broader perceived legitimacy of a movement. Third, low possibility of achieving goals could inspire bystanders’ endorsements of violent collective actions when the claims are legitimate. Bystanders will lower their hostilities toward violence when they expect it will be very hard to achieve legitimate claims.
Key wordscollective action    bystander    claim legitimacy    non-violent action    violent action
收稿日期: 2017-06-29      出版日期: 2018-03-31
ZTFLH:     
  B849: C91  
基金资助: 山东省社会科学规划项目16DJYJ04资助。
通讯作者: 殷融, E-mail: yorkns@sina.cn     E-mail: E-mail: yorkns@sina.cn
引用本文:   
殷融.  旁观者对集体行动的支持:目标合理性、 行动策略及目标实现预期的作用[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(5): 558-571.
YIN Rong.  When will bystanders support collective actions? The roles of claim legitimacy, protest tactic and expectations of achieving goals. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(5): 558-571.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00558      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I5/558
[1] 黄凤, 丁倩, 魏华, 洪建中.  帖子主题特征对虚拟社区知识分享行为的影响: 旁观者效应的视角[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(2): 226-234.
[2] 殷融;张菲菲;王元元;臧日霞. 当抗议遭遇挫折:集体行动失利情境下情绪反应对行动意愿的作用[J]. 心理学报, 2017, 49(4): 482-499.
[3] 薛婷;陈浩;乐国安;姚琦. 社会认同对集体行动的作用:群体情绪与效能路径[J]. 心理学报, 2013, 45(8): 899-920.
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