ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (4): 363-376.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00363

• •    下一篇

美在观察者眼中:陌生面孔吸引力评价中 的晕轮效应与泛化效应

 韩尚锋1;  李 玥1,2;  刘 燊1,3;  徐 强1;  谭 群1;张 林1   

  1.  (1 宁波大学心理学系暨研究所, 宁波 315211) (2 云南商务职业技术学院, 昆明 650000) (3 中国科学技术大学人文与社会科学学院, 合肥 230022)
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-03 出版日期:2018-04-25 发布日期:2018-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 张林, E-mail: zhanglin1@nbu.edu.cn; 刘燊, E-mail: liushenpsy@ustc.edu.cn E-mail:E-mail: zhanglin1@nbu.edu.cn; E-mail: liushenpsy@ustc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
     国家社科基金(12BSH055)、国家自然科学基金(31540024)、宁波大学研究生科研创新基金(G17007)资助。

 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: The halo effect and generalization effect in the facial attractiveness evaluation

 HAN Shangfeng1; LI Yue1,2; LIU Shen1,3; XU Qiang1; TAN Qun1; ZHANG Lin1   

  1.  (1 Department and Institute of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China) (2 Yunnan Business Vocational College, Kunming 650000, China) (3 School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022, China)
  • Received:2017-05-03 Online:2018-04-25 Published:2018-02-28
  • Contact: ZHANG Lin, E-mail: zhanglin1@nbu.edu.cn; 刘燊, E-mail: liushenpsy@ustc.edu.cn E-mail:E-mail: zhanglin1@nbu.edu.cn; E-mail: liushenpsy@ustc.edu.cn
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摘要:  本研究旨在探讨陌生面孔吸引力的知觉加工过程, 采用“学习−评价”任务考察晕轮效应和泛化效应在其中的作用。结果发现, 陌生面孔吸引力的加工有两条路径:(1)熟悉面孔的积极特质先发生晕轮效应进而出现泛化, 即相比于具有消极特质的熟悉面孔, 具有积极特质的熟悉面孔更有吸引力, 与其相似的陌生面孔也更有吸引力; (2)熟悉面孔的积极特质先发生泛化进而出现晕轮效应, 即相比于那些消极的熟悉面孔, 与积极熟悉面孔相似的陌生面孔特质评价更为积极, 且其吸引力评价也更高。这表明晕轮效应和泛化效应在陌生面孔吸引力评价中发挥着重要的作用。

关键词: 相似性, 晕轮效应, 泛化效应, 陌生面孔吸引力, 印象形成

Abstract:  Even though people usually agreed that “a book should not be judged by its cover”, researches had repeatedly demonstrated that individuals spontaneously and very swiftly formed impression on others based merely on the appearance of their faces. Facial attractiveness is an important content in the first perception. Which had been linked to outcomes as diverse as mate choice, job hunting, and cooperation. Given these real world consequences of the first impressions, it is important to understand how these impressions are formed. Some studies found that facial physical characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness and sexual dimorphism, had a great impact on facial attractiveness. While different individuals have different experience, when faced with the same face in the same context, different individuals have different evaluations on facial attractiveness. Some researchers put forward a new theory, namely, the observer hypothesis, which demonstrated that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness remained unclear. The goal of the current study was to explore how we processed the impression of unfamiliar facial attractiveness. 19 males and 27 females took part in the experiment one and 16 males and 22 females participated in the experiment two, each experiment contained two phases that were learning tasks and evaluation tasks. In the learning phase, participants firstly learned to associate faces with negative, neutral, or positive trait words or imaged the behavior of the individuals to form different impression, which was contribute to the same valence between the neutral face and trait words or sentence. When participants could evaluate the valence of the face correctly, they could proceed to the next phase. In the experiment one, 13 males and 25 females had passed learning phase and evaluated the original faces and the unfamiliar faces. In the experiment two, 12 males and 17 females had done the learning task and evaluation task successfully. And in the evaluation phase, extend of warmth, competence and facial attractiveness of the unfamiliar faces, which had 50% similarity with the learned faces, were evaluated. Both of the two experiments had the same results, which showed that there are two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness: (1) the first one is that generalization effect occurred after halo effect, compared with negative familiar faces, positive familiar faces were evaluated more attractive, so did the unfamiliar faces that were familiar with positive familiar faces; (2) the second one is that halo effect occurred after generalization effect, unfamiliar faces which were similar with positive familiar faces were not only evaluated more positive but also more attractive. The results suggested that generalization effect occurred after halo effect and halo effect occurred after generalization effect were the two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness. In conclusion, halo effect and generalization effect play an important role in the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness.

Key words: similarity, halo effect, generalization effect, unfamiliar facial attractiveness, impression formation

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