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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (3): 260-269    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00260
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 问题先导下语义相似性和原型难度 对原型启发的影响
 杨文静1;  靳玉乐2;  邱 江1; 张庆林1
 (1西南大学心理学部; 2西南大学教育学部, 重庆 400715)
 The effect of prototype difficulty and semantic similarity on the prototype activation
 YANG Wenjing1; JIN Yule2; QIU Jiang1; ZHANG Qinglin1
 (1 Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China) (2 Faculty of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China)
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摘要  采用现实生活中的科学发明事例, 通过两个研究探讨了问题先导下的原型启发促发顿悟的机制。实验1采用简单原型材料, 利用“先问题”范式探讨了问题先导下的原型启发促发顿悟的关键认知过程, 结果发现问题激活率可以解释问题解决正确率89.3%的变异。实验2采用3种不同难度的原型材料, 用“先问题”范式和被试自我报告问题和原型中关键词的方式探讨问题自动激活的机制。结果发现原型和问题关键词的提取对问题激活率有显著影响, 而原型和问题关键词之间的语义相似性与问题激活率显著相关。研究表明, 问题激活是现实生活中广泛存在的问题先导下的原型启发促发顿悟的关键认知过程。原型的特征性功能和问题的需求性功能之间的语义相似性是问题自动激活的机制。
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杨文静
靳玉乐
邱江
张庆林
关键词 创造性 顿悟 科学发明 原型启发 语义相似性    
Abstract: Amount of historical anecdotes suggest that the heuristic prototype is an effective method to get insight. The prototype heuristic theory suppose that insight obtain when people activate a prototypical example in nature and apply it to the problem at hand. In the real life, people often encounter a problem and then a heuristic prototype help them solve this problem. Some previous studies used the quartering problem and demonstrated that the automatic activation of prototype was the key process of prototype heuristic. However, this relationship was needed to test with real-life scientific innovation problems. Moreover, the mechanism of prototype activation also needed to explore further. Thus, present study used two experiments to test the cognitive mechanism of the prototype activation with real-life scientific innovation materials. In experiment 1, forty-eight participants were recruited to complete the prototype heuristic task. There were two stages in this task. In the first stage, participants needed to learn ten scientific problems that were randomly presented. They should press some buttons to indicate whether they have some knowledge of these problems. In the second phase, ten prototypes were presented and participants should first write which scientific problem learnt in the first stages could be solved by the current prototype. Then, participants needed to write how to solve the previous scientific problem with current prototype. The dependent variables were the prototype activation and the accuracy of the problem solving. In experiment 2, forty-seven participants completed the prototype heuristic task. The procedure was the same with experiment 1 and the prototype activation was the dependent variable. In experiment 1, a regression analysis was conducted. In this analysis, the problem activation was the independent variable and the accuracy of the problem solving was the dependent variable. The result of the regression analysis was R2 = 0.893, p < 0.001. This result suggested that the problem activation was the key process of problem solving. The results of experiment 2 showed that retrieval of the key words of the scientific problem significantly influenced the association of the problem and the prototype, t(44)= 27.677, p < 0.001. Moreover, match of the key words of the prototype and scientific problem significantly influenced the activation of the problem, t (44) = 8.744, p < 0.001. In addition, semantic similarity between the key words of the scientific problem and the prototype was significantly correlated with the problem activation, r = 0.202, p < 0.05. The results also showed that the difficulty of the prototype significantly influenced the problem activation, F(2,132)= 96.73, p < 0.001, h2p = 0.594. In summary, the results suggest that problem activation was the key process in the real-life problem solving enhanced by heuristic prototype. The semantic similarity between the feature function of the prototype and the required function of the problem is the mechanism of the problem activation.
Key wordscreativity    insight    scientific innovation    prototype heuristic    semantic similarity
收稿日期: 2017-03-17      出版日期: 2018-01-31
ZTFLH:     
  B842  
基金资助:  国家自然科学基金(31600878; 31470981), 中央高校基本科研业务经费一般项目(SWU1509451), 中共中央宣传部文化名家暨“四个一批”人才资助项目, “高校拔尖创新人才培养的国际经验及改革研究”。
通讯作者: 张庆林, E-mail: zhangql@swu.edu.cn; 杨文静, E-mail: yangwenjing@swu.edu.cn     E-mail: E-mail: zhangql@swu.edu.cn; E-mail: yangwenjing@swu.edu.cn
引用本文:   
杨文静, 靳玉乐, 邱江, 张庆林. (2018).  问题先导下语义相似性和原型难度 对原型启发的影响. 心理学报, 50(3): 260-269.
YANG Wenjing, JIN Yule, QIU Jiang, ZHANG Qinglin. (2018).  The effect of prototype difficulty and semantic similarity on the prototype activation. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(3), 260-269.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00260      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I3/260
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