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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (3): 253-259    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00253
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 情绪学习促进无意识信息进入意识
 张秀玲1;  庞兆阳1;  姜云鹏2;  张 明3;  蒋 毅4
 (1东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024) (2清华大学生物工程医学系, 北京 100084) (3苏州大学教育学院心理学系, 苏州 215000) (4中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101)
 Access to awareness is improved by affective learning
 ZHANG Xiuling1; PANG Zhaoyang1; JIANG Yunpeng2; ZHANG Ming3; JIANG Yi4
 (1 School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, China) (2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) (3 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China) (4 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)
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摘要  采用突破连续闪烁抑制范式(b-CFS), 考察了经过情绪学习的刺激在无意识中是否存在加工优势。实验1使用不同朝向的光栅刺激, 结果发现情绪学习条件比对照条件的刺激在CFS中突破抑制时间更短。实验2考察了更复杂的朝向和颜色整合的光栅刺激, 发现情绪优势效应具有特异性, 仅局限于情绪学习的整合刺激。研究表明经过情绪学习后的刺激在无意识加工中存在优势。
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张秀玲
庞兆阳
姜云鹏
张明
蒋毅
关键词 情绪学习 连续闪烁抑制范式 无意识信息加工    
Abstract: Increasing evidence has indicated that emotional information, and particularly threatening visual input, elicits faster behavioral responses than non-threatening stimuli. This superior processing of threatening information is also found under conditions where consciousness is absent. However, recent studies found that faster unconscious detection of emotion-associated stimuli than neutral stimuli may be due to their unmatched physical characteristics, rather than by their emotional content. Thus, it is necessary to test whether emotional stimuli still have the processing advantage over neutral ones in unconscious conditions when low-level visual properties are matched. In order to investigate whether unconsciously prioritized processing still occurs with emotion-associated stimuli which are physically identical, we used the conditioning paradigm to manipulate the affective significance of Gabor patches. Participants performed two challenging visual detection tasks under the breaking Continuous Flash Suppression (b-CFS) paradigm. In experiment 1, differently oriented Gabor patches (45° and 135°) were used as material. During an initial learning phase, one oriented Gabor patch (e.g., 45°) was paired with an alarm sound (CS+), whereas the other was never paired with the alarm sound (CS–). The emotional rating indicated that negative emotion could be elicited by the alarm sound in the participants. The orientation of CS+ Gabor patches was counterbalanced across participants. In the subsequent testing phase, participants were required to discriminate the location of the Gabor patch relative to the central fixation as quickly and accurately as possible. In this phase, Gabor patches were suppressed by dynamic noise using b-CFS. The procedure in experiment 2 was the same with that in experiment 1, except that the color of the Gabor patches was also varied, between red and green. In experiment 1, there was no difference in the accuracy rates between CS+ stimuli and CS– stimuli (99% vs. 99%). Suppression time results showed that CS+ stimuli emerged from suppression faster than CS– ones. In experiment 2, there was no difference in the accuracy rates for different learning condition. For the analysis of suppression time, the “learning effect” was computed to represent difference between experimental conditions and control condition. Integrated learning showed a significant learning effect, while there was no remarkable learning effect in orientation learning or in color learning condition. These findings revealed an unconscious processing advantage for aversive conditioned stimuli. Furthermore, the learning effect was specific to the conditioned stimuli and could not generalize to other similar objects. Taken together, this study provided further evidence for the optimized processing of affectively significant visual stimuli in unconscious conditions.
Key wordsaffective learning    breaking Continuous Flash Suppression    unconscious processing
收稿日期: 2017-01-11      出版日期: 2018-01-31
ZTFLH:     
  B842  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金(31100730); 博士后科学基金特别资助(2013T60305)。
通讯作者: 张明, E-mail: psyzm@suda.edu.cn 张秀玲, E-mail: journeyonstars@126.com     E-mail: E-mail: psyzm@suda.edu.cn , E-mail: journeyonstars@126.com
引用本文:   
张秀玲, 庞兆阳, 姜云鹏, 张明, 蒋毅.  情绪学习促进无意识信息进入意识[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(3): 253-259.
ZHANG Xiuling, PANG Zhaoyang, JIANG Yunpeng, ZHANG Ming, JIANG Yi.  Access to awareness is improved by affective learning. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(3): 253-259.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00253      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I3/253
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[2] 张秀玲;董波;姜云鹏;张明. 无意识信息加工中的“完型”—— 无意识捆绑假说的新证据[J]. 心理学报, 2012, 44(12): 1563-1570.
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