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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (2): 143-157    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00143
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 物体拓扑性质对背景线索效应的影响及其加工机制
 马 捷1;  窦皓然1;  庄 茜1;  尹冬雪1;  雷 明1; 高 超2;  张 引1;  刘 强1;  赵 光1
 (1辽宁师范大学脑与认知神经科学研究中心, 大连 116029) (2江汉大学教育学院, 武汉 430056)
 The mechanisms of contextual cuing effect based on objects’ topological properties
 MA Jie1; DOU Haoran1; ZHUANG Qian1; YIN Dongxue1; LEI Ming1; GAO Chao2; ZHANG Yin1; LIU Qiang1; ZHAO Guang1
 (1 Brain and cognitive neuroscience research center, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China) (2 Institute of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China)
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摘要   背景线索效应是指在视觉搜索中由于场景的重复曝光而产生的行为便利。而以往研究关注于刺激的欧式性质所代表的属性信息对背景线索效应的影响, 然而在视知觉加工过程中扮演重要角色的拓扑性质对背景线索效应的影响仍缺乏相关实证研究。因此, 研究采用视觉搜索任务, 通过操控不同场景中刺激的拓扑性质或欧式性质的变化, 考察拓扑性质与欧式性质两种属性信息对背景线索效应的调制。结果发现:(1)拓扑性质和欧式性质与目标之间的联结关系均可促进行为反应, 获得背景线索效应; (2)视觉学习机制对拓扑性质的重复性更加敏感, 并且拓扑性质与目标之间联结关系的稳定性相对于欧式性质与目标之间的联结关系稳定性对于背景线索效应的获得具有更为重要的意义。
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马捷
窦皓然
庄茜
尹冬雪
雷明
高超
张引
刘强
赵光
关键词 背景线索效应 拓扑性质 欧式性质 拓扑知觉理论    
Abstract: When the associations among objects in the scene tend to remain unchanged as the time progressed, the repeated associations would guide attention to the target’s location more efficiently compared with the new context that changed across blocks, which is known as the contextual cuing effect. Though the process of the spatial layout has been widely interpreted, some studies that has investigated the role of object’s identities in contextual cuing effect were limited to the Euclidean property. The topological property, one of the most important objects’ identities referring to visual perception, was largely neglected. In this study, we aimed to manipulate configurations with topological property, Euclidean property, combined property as well as random configurations to test whether the predictability of the target associated with the topological property has the superiority relative to the Euclidean property. In Experiment one, a classic contextual cuing task was performed. Four types of configurations were randomly presented in the experiment. Experiment two was divided into two sessions, the studying session and the testing session. In the studying session, 24 configurations were repeated throughout the entire session, which was used to develop the learning effect. In the testing session, the previous 24 configurations were transformed into three groups, the topological repeated configurations, the Euclidean repeated configurations and the combined configurations. Meanwhile, eight random configurations were introduced as the baseline to measure the contextual cuing effect. In Experiment three, after the regularities of contexts had been learned, the topological properties of the target (experiment 3a) or distractors (experiment 3b) had been changed respectively. We explore whether topological changed configurations could capture attention by generating “new object” or lift the bound between topological regularities of the context and corresponding spatial layouts. In Experiment one, the main effects and the interaction between configuration and epoch were significant, indicating that all the three different repeated configurations obtained a remarkable contextual cuing effect. Further analysis showed that the reaction time in topological repeated configuration was faster than that in the random configuration in the 1st epoch, while the Euclidean repeated configuration had faster RTs than the random configuration from the 2nd epoch. In Experiment two, only the main effect of epoch was significant for the studying session, revealing an obvious learning effect. After configurations transformed, compared to the matched configurations in the learning session, RTs in both the topological repeated configuration and the Euclidean repeated configuration were significantly increased. Furthermore, the RTs of the topological repeated configuration were faster than the random configuration, while the RTs of the Euclidean repeated configuration were slower than the random configuration. The results demonstrated that the object’s property played an important role in contextual cuing effect, and the stability of topological-target associations made a greater contribution than Euclidean-target associations did in maintaining the contextual cuing effect. In Experiment three, both sub-experiments showed a significant learning effect in the studying session. For the testing session of Experiment 3a, the reaction time was not affected when the topological property of the target has changed. However, the accuracy of the topological changed configuration was significantly decreased than the topological repeated configuration of the Experiment 3b. Thus, Experiment three clarified the increased reaction time in the Euclidean repeated configuration, suggesting that contextual regularities of topological properties were bound to corresponding spatial layout. When topological regularities distorted, the "contextual confusion" came forth and made participants unable to utilize the context to guide attention to the target location effectively. For the first time, we have verified that the associations between objects’ topological property and the target could produce behavioral benefit than the Euclidean associations do. The association could probably be regarded as an informative cue to guide attention to the target location more efficiently. Nevertheless, the predictability of topological configuration takes priorities over Euclidean configuration during the learning course, and the association between objects’ topological property and the target has a more important significance in maintaining the contextual cuing effect.
Key words contextual cuing effect    topological property    Euclidean property    topological perception theory
收稿日期: 2016-08-31      出版日期: 2017-12-26
ZTFLH:     
  B842  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金(NSFC:31400870)项目资助。
通讯作者: 赵光, E-mail: zhaoguang721@163.com   
引用本文:   
马捷, 窦皓然, 庄茜, 尹冬雪, 雷明, 高超, 张引, 刘强, 赵光. (2018).  物体拓扑性质对背景线索效应的影响及其加工机制. 心理学报, 50(2): 143-157.
MA Jie, DOU Haoran, ZHUANG Qian, YIN Dongxue, LEI Ming, GAO Chao, ZHANG Yin, LIU Qiang, ZHAO Guang. (2018).  The mechanisms of contextual cuing effect based on objects’ topological properties. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(2), 143-157.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00143      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I2/143
[1] 李宝林;陈有国;袁祥勇;Todd Jackson;黄希庭. 拓扑性质对视觉新异刺激时距知觉的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2013, 45(12): 1324-1333.
[2] 韩世辉,陈霖. 注意对拓扑性质和局部几何性质检测的不同影响──进一步的实验证据[J]. 心理学报, 1994, 26(03): 272-278.
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