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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (1): 9-27    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00009
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 身份交换对多身份追踪表现的影响
 胡路明1; 吕 创1;  张学民1,2;  魏柳青1
 (1北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学); 2北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875)
 The effect of identity switch in Multiple Identity Tracking
 HU Luming1; LYU Chuang1; ZHANG Xuemin1,2; WEI Liuqing1
 (1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University); Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University; 2 State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
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摘要  本研究探讨了身份交换对多身份追踪表现的影响。实验1和实验2分别考察了全部报告法和部分报告法下身份交换对多身份追踪表现的具体影响。结果均发现, 身份交换对身份−位置绑定干扰程度越大, 位置追踪和身份识别容量也均越低, 但位置容量始终高于身份容量, 并且这些特性在不同追踪负荷上相同。此外, 部分报告法比全部报告法更具有容量测量优势。实验3则进一步从听觉通道上控制了语音复述对当前任务的干扰, 所得结果仍支持实验1和实验2。这表明, 身份交换对多身份追踪的干扰机制是身份−位置绑定机制受到损害, 而非语音复述的作用。
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胡路明
吕 创
张学民
魏柳青
关键词 多身份追踪 身份交换 身份−位置绑定 部分报告法 语音复述    
Abstract: The Model of Multiple Identity Tracking (MOMIT) proposed by Oksama and Hyönä (2008) models observers’ tracking performance among multiple unique moving items. The model provides a functional explanation for the process for how the “what” and “where” information work together in a dynamic visual environment. However, two main issues in MOMIT are still unclear. First, though MOMIT supposes that the “what” and “where” information can be analyzed separately by the identity processing system and location processing system in the early stage, it is unclear whether these two processing systems share the same attentional resources. Second, MOMIT posits that the what-where bindings are stored in the temporary episodic buffer, but there is no direct evidence of this. Exploring these two issues may help us understand the cognitive mechanism of multiple identity tracking (MIT) better and improve the MOMIT. In this study, we used a variant of the MIT paradigm in which we interfered with the what-where binding by making the objects switch identities during tracking. In Experiment 1, we designated three identity-switch conditions: identity switch within the set of targets, identity switch within the set of distractors, and identity switch within all objects. And in the baseline condition the objects’ identities did not change throughout tracking. Given the limitation of the whole report method, Experiment 2 then tested the hypothesis again using the partial report method. The numbers of 0-9 were used as the objects’ identities in both experiments. The results of Experiment 1 showed that identity switching impaired both location tracking and identity recognition. Specifically, the location tracking and identity recognition was impaired the most in the condition where identities switch for all objects, followed by the condition in which the identities of the targets switched, and then the condition in which the identities of the distractors switched, which was not significantly different from the baseline condition. In addition, this declining trend was the same when participants had to track 4 targets and 5 targets. In other words, the increase of tracking load diminished people’s capacity to track location and identity recognition. The results of Experiment 2 showed the same effect due of interfering with what-where bindings. We also found that the partial report method revealed more data than the whole report method. Finally, in Experiment 3, we completely randomized pronunciations of the letters A-Z in the auditory channel in order to eliminate the interference of phonetic rehearsal. The results were the same as in Experiment 1. That is, the phonetic rehearsal did not affect the effects of identity-location binding. Overall, the results provide deeper understanding of MIT and improve the MOMIT through direct behavioral evidence. (1) The results reveal that the location processing system and identity processing system share a common attention resource pool, and the utilization of “where” information in the visual system seems to take precedence over “what” information. (2) The impairment of what-where binding will damage the tracking performance of MIT. (3) People mainly use attentional resources to enhance visual resolution towards targets (target-oriented) in MIT, rather than processing distractors. (4) The whole report method is less sensitive than the partial report method and may underestimate the capacity of visual working memory. (5) Even after controlling for phonetic rehearsal, people still experience interference from identity-location binding when they are tracking multiple moving objects.
Key wordsMultiple Identity Tracking    identity switching    what-where binding    partial report method    phonetic rehearsal
收稿日期: 2016-11-18      出版日期: 2017-11-28
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“多目标视觉追踪中注意分配的认知神经机制研究” (批准号:31271083)和国家自然科学基金重点项目“注意神经机制的可计算模型研究” (批准号:61632014)资助。
通讯作者: 张学民, E-mail: xmzhang@bnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
胡路明, 吕 创, 张学民, 魏柳青.  身份交换对多身份追踪表现的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(1): 9-27.
HU Luming, LYU Chuang, ZHANG Xuemin, WEI Liuqing.  The effect of identity switch in Multiple Identity Tracking. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(1): 9-27.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00009      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I1/9
[1] 雷寰宇;魏柳青;吕创;张学民;闫晓倩. 多身份追踪中基于表情特征的分组效应[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(2): 141-152.
[2] 白田;吕创;魏柳青;周义斌;张学民. 目标与非目标身份特征的范畴间差异对多身份追踪的促进作用[J]. 心理学报, 2015, 47(2): 203-211.
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