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心理学报  2017, Vol. 49 Issue (12): 1559-1569    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01559
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 道德情绪对网络助人行为的影响 ——道德推理的中介作用
吴鹏1;范 晶1; 刘华山2
 (1湖北大学教育学院心理学系, 武汉 430062) (2华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079)
 The influence of moral emotions on online helping behavior: The mediating role of moral reasoning
 WU Peng1; FAN Jing1; LIU Huashan2
 (1 Faculty of Education, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China) (2 School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China)
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摘要  对道德情绪与道德推理在道德行为中的作用, 道德心理学研究者还存在一定的争议。传统道德心理学理论认为道德推理应该起重要作用。最新的道德心理模型则认为道德情绪也起重要作用, 但在情绪与推理的作用大小上存在争议。实验1通过情绪启动与电子邮件求助的研究范式, 探讨同情、内疚情绪对网络助人行为的影响, 结果表明同情与内疚情绪可以显著激发个体的网络助人行为。实验2探讨道德情绪影响网络助人行为的机制, 即道德推理在道德情绪对网络助人行为影响的中介作用, 结果表明道德推理可以部分中介道德情绪对网络助人行为的影响。上述结果表明道德情绪对网络助人行为的直接影响及道德推理的部分中介作用, 不支持道德动机社会直觉模型、支持道德双加工模型。
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吴鹏
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关键词 道德情绪 道德推理 网络助人行为 中介效应    
Abstract

According to the dual-process model and the social intuitionist model, moral emotion is defined as a key factor in predicting moral behavior. The difference between the two models is whether moral emotion has a direct effect on moral behavior. The dual-process model points out that moral emotion directly affects moral behavior, whereas in the social intuitionist model, the effect of moral emotion on moral behavior will be mediated through moral reasoning. With the rapid development of internet and information technology, people’s psychological states and behaviors have changed dramatically. So the above distinctions between the two models can be extended to the studies on cyberpsychology and behavior. To test the two models in an network environment, the present study involved a series of experiments to examine whether moral emotion predicted online helping behavior and whether moral reasoning mediated this relation.

Video materials were validated in the pilot study. A total of 120 college students evaluated the feeling of sympathy and guilt, the level of pleasure and arousal after watching one of three video materials (sympathy, guilt and neutral). In Study 1, 56 college students were recruited and randomly assigned to the “sympathy”, “guilt” or “neutral” group. Participants were asked to complete an online test after watching the relevant moral emotion video. After the testing, participants were informed that they would receive an email sent by the experimenter anonymously. In the email, participants were required to offer additional help (to fill in an online questionnaire). Participants’ online helping behavior was measured by the amount of questions that they answered. In Study 2, 233 college students were invited to participate. In addition to the same arrangement as in Study 1, participants’ moral reasoning was measured by the Prosocial Reasoning Objective Measure (PROM).

The results of pilot study suggested that the “sympathy” video material led to greater sympathy and less guilty, while the “guilt” video material led to greater guilt and less sympathy. With regard to the level of pleasure and arousal, there was no significant difference between the “sympathy” video material and the “guilt” video material, whereas there was a significant difference between the “neutral” video material and the other two video materials. In Study 1, ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that as compared to neutral emotion, sympathy and guilt aroused more online helping behaviors. However, there was no difference between sympathy and guilt. In Study 2, statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable (recommended by Hayes and Preacher) was used in the analyses of the data. The results showed that sympathy and guilt could induce online helping behavior through the mediation effect of moral reasoning, whereas moral emotion had a direct effect on moral behavior.

This study has practical and theoretical significance. Specifically, the finding suggests that the role of moral emotion in moral education, in particular as related to moral reasoning, has to be further researched. Theoretically, the present study confirms that video-prime is an effective method to explore moral emotion. Furthermore, most of the findings of the present study supports the dual-process model.

Key wordsmoral emotion    moral reasoning    online helping behavior    mediation effect
收稿日期: 2017-01-09      出版日期: 2017-10-25
ZTFLH:     
  B849:C91  
基金资助: 国家社会科学基金教育学青年课题(CBA150156)资助。
通讯作者: 吴鹏, E-mail: reavenwp@163.com   
引用本文:   
吴鹏, 范晶, 刘华山.  道德情绪对网络助人行为的影响 ——道德推理的中介作用[J]. 心理学报, 2017, 49(12): 1559-1569.
WU Peng, FAN Jing, LIU Huashan.  The influence of moral emotions on online helping behavior: The mediating role of moral reasoning. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(12): 1559-1569.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01559      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2017/V49/I12/1559
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