ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (11): 1392-1403.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01392

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 “各说各话”的语言经验 对景颇族大学生执行功能的影响

 王 婷1;  王 丹1;  张积家1;  崔健爱2   

  1.  (1中国人民大学心理学系、国家民委民族语言文化心理重点研究基地、教育部民族教育发展中心 民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872) (2德宏师范高等师范专科学校社科系, 云南潞西 678400)
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-09 出版日期:2017-11-26 发布日期:2017-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 张积家, E-mail: Zhangjj1955@163.com E-mail: E-mail: Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • 基金资助:
     中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校科研业务费专项资金资助)项目“语言影响人格:来自双语者与双言者的行为与电生理证据” (项目编号:17XNL002)的阶段性成果。

Effects of “each speaks their own dialect” phenomenon on the executive function of Jingpo students

 WANG Ting1; WANG Dan1; ZHANG Jijia1; CUI Jianai2   

  1.  (1 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China; The State Ethnic Affairs Commission Key Research Center for Language, Cultural, and Psychology; Key Research Center for National Psychology and Education, the National Education Development Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China) (2 Department of Social Science, Dehong Teachers’ College, Yunnan Luxi 678400, China)
  • Received:2016-11-09 Online:2017-11-26 Published:2017-09-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia, E-mail: Zhangjj1955@163.com E-mail: E-mail: Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  在中国云南的景颇族中, 相当多的家庭是由不同支系的人组成的, 家庭成员交际时存在着“各说各话”的现象。“各说各话”对讲话者的执行功能有无影响?采用抑制控制、注意转换和记忆刷新任务测量各说各话和非各说各话的景颇族大学生的抑制能力、转换能力和刷新能力。结果表明, 各说各话与非各说各话的景颇族大学生在色词干扰和数字转换中差异显著, 各说各话者的Stroop效应量小, 停止信号的反应时短。各说各话与非各说各话的景颇族大学生在数字转换和图形转换中差异显著, 各说各话者反应快, 转换代价小。各说各话与非各说各话的景颇族大学生在活动记忆刷新与色点位置刷新任务中差异不显著。这表明, 各说各话者比非各说各话者在抑制能力与转换能力上具有优势。语言经验对执行功能的影响具有功能特异性。

关键词: 景颇族, 各说各话, 执行功能

Abstract:  Many Jingpo families are composed of people from different branches of the Jingpo nationality, each of which has its own dialect. Family members use these different dialects when they communicate with each other. Will this linguistic phenomenon influence their executive function? Previous research on the relation of language and executive function views inhibitory control as one of the common components but seldom takes into consideration the diversity of executive functions. Moreover, previous studies have confirmed that bilingualism has a positive effect on many cognitive functions. Studies of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience have strongly suggested that executive function is not a unitary construct. However, few researchers have examined the ethnic Chinese minorities through empirical study The present study investigated three latitude executive functions (inhibition of responses, memory updating, and attention switching) of 56 Jingpo college students in Yunnan Province. The participants of this study were divided into groups that do and do not speak their own dialect. Both groups were investigated in three experiment tasks to explore the effects of language experience and culture on different components of executive function. In Test 1, the inhibition subcomponent was measured by the Stroop task and stop–signal task. In Test 2, the updating subcomponent was tested by the active memory task and color dots updating task. In Test 3, the shifting subcomponent was tested by local–global task and more–odd task. Correlation analysis results indicated that tasks measuring the same executive function presented a significant positive correlation, and the correlation between tasks measuring different functions was not significant, providing strong evidence for the diversity of executive function. Based on this result we tested the cognitive advantages in three executive functions between students who do and do not speak their own dialect. The result indicated a bilingual cognitive advantage in Jingpo college students. Students who speak their own dialect outperformed those who do not in inhibitory control and shifting, but there were no significant difference of two groups in memory updating. In summary, the present study suggests that executive function includes different components, and that language experience has a specific effect on executive function. These can be new evidence for the hypothesis of linguistic reality: language influence cognition.

Key words:  Jingpo nationality, each speaks their own dialect, executive function

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