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心理学报  2017, Vol. 49 Issue (8): 1009-1021    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01009
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 工作记忆与知觉负载对工作记忆表征 引导注意的调节
 张 豹;  胡岑楼;  陈颜璋;  缪素媚;  黄 赛
 (广州大学心理系/广东省未成年人心理健康与教育神经科学实验室, 广州 510006)
 The modulation of working memory load and perceptual load on attentional guidance from representations of working memory
 ZHANG Bao; HU Cenlou; CHEN Yanzhang; MIAO Sumei; HUANG Sai
 (Department of Psychology/The Key Laboratory for Juveniles Mental Health and Educational Neuroscience in Guangdong Province, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China)
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摘要  本研究采用4个眼动实验探讨不同知觉负载条件下的视觉搜索任务中工作记忆负载对基于工作记忆表征的注意引导效应的影响。实验1和实验3采用低知觉负载的视觉搜索任务, 结果在视觉工作记忆负载为1和2时观察到了显著的注意引导效应, 但当负载增加到4时注意引导效应消失了; 实验2和实验4采用高知觉负载的视觉搜索任务, 结果发现注意引导效应在工作记忆负载增加到2时就已经消失了。上述结果表明:工作记忆负载和知觉负载都能够通过调控认知资源的方式来影响工作记忆表征对注意的引导, 当认知资源充足时, 工作记忆能够同时保持多个记忆表征对视觉注意的引导。
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张豹
胡岑楼
陈颜璋
缪素媚
黄赛
关键词  工作记忆负载 知觉负载 注意引导效应 认知资源    
Abstract: Attention is biased towards the objects that sharing common features with the online representations in working memory (WM) and such phenomenon is called WM based attentional guidance. Although the attentional guidance was regarded as operating in an involuntary manner, many researchers still found that the guidance effects decreased or even eliminated with the increasing of WM load. However, the issue how WM load affects attentional guidance is still controversial. The probable reason for the attenuating of memory-driven guidance caused by the WM load might either be due to exhausting of cognitive resources with the load increasing, or be due to the reducing of the representation status when multiple representations maintaining in WM simultaneously. Here, with using the eye movement tracking technique to measure the attentional deployment in real time during the visual search task, we attempted to explore how the WM load modulated the attentional guidance under different perceptual load of visual search task. The classic dual-task paradigm combined the WM task and the visual search task was adopted in the present study. Participants were required to complete a visual search task while maintaining 1, 2 or 4 items in the WM online. During the visual search task, one of the WM items either reappear as a distractor of visual search task in the invalid condition or not reappear in the neutral condition. When low perceptual load of visual search task was used in experiment 1 and 3, the results showed that the distractor matched the WM representation could capture more of the first fixation than other distractors, and the RT in invalid condition was significant greater than the neutral condition in visual search under WM load of 1 and 2, suggesting a classic attentional guidance effect, but this effect was not observed when the WM load increased to 4 items which was regarded as the full load of WM. In contrast, when the high perceptual load of visual search task was used in experiment 2 and 4, the guidance effect was only found under the WM load of 1, and disappeared when the WM load add to 2 items. In conclusion, the present study illustrated that (1) both the load of WM and perceptual load of visual search task can modulate the WM based attentional guidance by the means of competing for the common cognitive resources, and (2) multiple representations maintained simultaneously in WM can guide attentional selection if the cognitive resources are sufficient.
Key words working memory load    perceptual load    guidance effects    cognitive resources
收稿日期: 2016-10-22      出版日期: 2017-06-25
ZTFLH:     
  B842  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(31200854, 31571144, 31371034)资助。
通讯作者: 黄赛, E-mail: sai.huang@139.com     E-mail: E-mail: sai.huang@139.com
引用本文:   
张豹, 胡岑楼, 陈颜璋, 缪素媚, 黄赛.  工作记忆与知觉负载对工作记忆表征 引导注意的调节[J]. 心理学报, 2017, 49(8): 1009-1021.
ZHANG Bao, HU Cenlou, CHEN Yanzhang, MIAO Sumei, HUANG Sai.  The modulation of working memory load and perceptual load on attentional guidance from representations of working memory. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(8): 1009-1021.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01009      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2017/V49/I8/1009
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