ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (5): 643-652.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00643

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

PTSD青少年执行功能缺陷的情绪特异性

杨海波1,2; 赵 欣1; 汪 洋1; 张 磊1; 王瑞萌1; 张 毅1; 王 力2   

  1. (1天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074) (2中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101)
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-28 出版日期:2017-05-25 发布日期:2017-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 王力, E-mail: wangli1@psych.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院心理健康重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所)经费资助和天津市哲学社会科学规划项目(TJJX15-002)经费资助。

The emotional specificity of executive function defects of earthquake PTSD teenagers

YANG Haibo1,2; ZHAO Xin1; WANG Yang1; ZHANG Lei1; WANG Ruimeng1; ZHANG Yi1; WANG Li2   

  1. (1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China) (2 CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)
  • Received:2016-04-28 Online:2017-05-25 Published:2017-05-25
  • Contact: WANG Li, E-mail: wangli1@psych.ac.cn

摘要:

已有研究表明PTSD青少年存在执行功能缺陷, 但尚不清楚这种缺陷是否具有情绪特异性。以2008年汶川地震重灾区汉旺中学PTSD、非PTSD以及非灾区青少年各28名为被试, 探讨震后PTSD青少年执行功能缺陷是否具有情绪特异性。实验1采用经典Stroop范式, 结果发现3组被试的Stroop效应量无显著差异; 实验2采用情绪Stroop范式, 结果发现PTSD组对地震信息的Stroop效应量显著大于非PTSD组和控制组。整个研究表明, 震后PTSD青少年的执行功能缺陷具有情绪特异性。

关键词: 震后PTSD青少年, 执行功能, Stroop任务, 情绪Stroop任务

Abstract:

Previous studies have provided evidence regarding changes in executive function in adults and maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have examined cognitive function in adolescents with PTSD related specifically to natural disasters. The goal of this current study is to assess the “cold” executive function and “hot” executive function in adolescents with PTSD after experiencing a magnitude 8.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China, 2008. Two experiments were designed to test our hypotheses. In study1, we investigated the “cold” executive function using the classic Stroop task. In study 2, the “hot” executive function was measured with the emotional Stroop task. The current research examined 947 junior high school students using PCL-5 questionnaires designed by trained psychiatrists. Results showed that 44 adolescents (aged 13-17 years) were diagnosed with PTSD after the Sichuan earthquake. The two tasks were administered to three groups of adolescents: (a) 28 PTSD adolescents (14 male, 14 female); (b) 28 non-PTSD adolescents exposed to the same earthquake (14 male, 14 female); (c) 28 healthy adolescents without earthquake experience (15 male, 13 female). In the classic Stroop task, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of mean reaction time (RT) only revealed a significant effect in congruent color words, indicating that the RTs of incongruent trials were significantly longer than those of congruent trials in all three groups. The Stroop effect on the PTSD group, non-PTSD group and the controlled teenagers showed no significant differences. The results proved that adolescents with PTSD performed similarly to non-PTSD and controlled teenagers in “cold” executive function in the classic Stroop task. In the emotional Stroop task, the ANOVA of mean RT revealed a significant interaction effect between group and word type. The simple effect test showed that the RTs of earthquake-related words of PTSD teenagers were significantly longer than those of positive words and neutral words, while the RTs of earthquake-related words of non-PTSD teenagers were significantly shorter than those of positive words and neutral words. There was no significant effect in the controlled group. In addition, the ANOVA of the emotional Stroop effect revealed a significant interaction effect between group and word type. The simple effect test showed that a more robust earthquake interference effect was obtained than positive words in the PTSD group, while the earthquake interference effect was inferior to the positive words for the non-PTSD group. Once again, there was no significant effect in the controlled group. As a result, the PTSD group performed more poorly in the emotional Stroop task compared with the non-PTSD group and controlled group, exhibiting defects in “hot” executive function. In summary, the current study suggests that adolescents with PTSD relating to a natural disaster have defects only in the emotional control domain of executive function compared with non-PTSD adolescents exposed to the same disaster, and adolescents with no exposure to earthquake experience at all. However, PTSD adolescents do perform well in generic executive function compared to both the non-PTSD and control group.

Key words: PTSD adolescents of earthquake, executive function, the Stroop task, the emotional Stroop task