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横向交往还是纵向交往? ——工具性交往对社会资本的影响
王颂
(浙江大学管理学院, 杭州 310058)
Instrumental networking and social network building: How horizontal networking and upward networking create social capital
WANG Song
(School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China)
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摘要 

本文提出了组织内员工社会资本的构建过程, 探究了员工工具性交往的风格, 并检验了横向交往和纵向交往两种工具性交往对员工社会资本的影响。研究1通过对20位管理者和员工的访谈分析, 阐述了横向交往和纵向交往两种工具性交往风格, 初步构建了社会资本构建过程的理论框架, 研究2基于对12个部门整体网络数据的回归分析, 进一步验证了两种工具性交往对网络中心性的影响。回归分析显示, 横向交往对员工的网络中心性具有正向的作用; 横向交往调节了纵向交往对网络中心性的倒U型影响。即, 当员工表现出横向交往以及适度的纵向交往时, 员工的网络中心性最高。本研究有助于深入理解企业中的员工社会资本形成机制, 并对如何构建和谐有效的员工关系具有较强的实践启示。

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王颂
关键词 工具性交往 横向交往 纵向交往 社会资本 构建效应    
Abstract

Based on a qualitative study of 20 interviewees and a quantitative analysis of 12 department-level whole networks, this paper illustrates how horizontal networking and upward networking contribute to the formation of social capital. In particular, upward networking has an inverted U-shaped effect on social capital, while horizontal networking has a positive effect on social capital. These findings improve our understanding on the mechanism how individuals form their social capital and how to build harmony employment relationships within organizations. Social capital is privileged in organizational life, however, studies on the origins of social capital remain limited. This paper takes a human agency perspective and theorizes that ego’s instrumental networking can shape social structure. To be specific, in working places, employees intentionally take instrumental interactions, e.g. networking with colleagues with diverse backgrounds or building intimacy with high-status leaders, to create new social capital. This paper develops two approaches of instrumental networking—horizontal networking and upward networking, and proposes a theoretical framework how these two kinds of instrumental networking affect the creation of social capital within organizations. In study 1, based on 20 interviewees who have witnessed ego’s instrumental networking, the author primarily developed an inductive process model. In study 2, using hierarchical linear modeling, a test of hypotheses was conducted in a data of 12 department-level whole networks. Similar to the finding in qualitative analysis, the regression results suggest horizontal networking helps the creation of social capital; however, upward networking has an inverted U-shaped effect on social capital. Overall, this paper makes contributions in the following ways. First, although structural determinism is well-regarded, human agency perspective has increasingly emerged in network studies. This paper echoes the call of human agency perspective to investigate the origins of social capital. The inductive analysis suggests that ego’s instrumental networking affects the benefit-cost calculus of alters which in turn influences alters’ willingness to contact with egos. Second, this paper identifies ego’s two types of instrumental networking style as a distinct mechanism shaping alters’ social attempt. Specially, the study shows alters will select egos using more horizontal networking, whereas upward networking is initially appreciated but may subsequently be overthrown for its potential ethical problems. Finally, by amassing interview data from various organizational settings in China, this paper makes an empirical contribution by extending the geographic reach of research on emerging economies and social capital. Earlier studies examining social capital have largely been limited to the Western context of open markets, free competition and individualistic orientation. Although a few pioneer studies suggest the constraining effects of culture on structural holes, the mechanism of how social capital origins in emerging economies with different cultural norms and market institutions remains largely unexplored.

Key wordsinstrumental networking    horizontal networking    upward networking    social capital    human agency
收稿日期: 2015-07-02      出版日期: 2017-01-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目资助(项目批准号:71402164)。

通讯作者: 王颂, E-mail: wasofei@zju.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
王颂. 横向交往还是纵向交往? ——工具性交往对社会资本的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00116.
WANG Song. Instrumental networking and social network building: How horizontal networking and upward networking create social capital. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(1): 116-127.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00116      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2017/V49/I1/116
[1] 周文霞;谢宝国;辛迅;白光林:苗仁涛. 人力资本、社会资本和心理资本影响中国员工职业成功的元分析[J]. 心理学报, 2015, 47(2): 251-263.
[2] 张辉华. 个体情绪智力与任务绩效:社会网络的视角[J]. 心理学报, 2014, 46(11): 1691-1703.
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