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心理学报
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被动性社交网站使用与自尊和自我概念清晰性:有调节的中介模型
刘庆奇;牛更枫;范翠英;周宗奎
(青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室; 华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079)
Passive use of social network site and its relationships with self-esteem and self-concept clarity: A moderated mediation analysis
LIU Qingqi; NIU Gengfeng; Fan Cuiying; ZHOU Zongkui
(Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China)
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摘要 

为探讨被动性社交网站使用对自尊和自我概念清晰性的影响及其作用机制, 在社会比较理论和乐观的保护性作用的视角下, 采用问卷法对1208名大学生进行调查。结果表明:(1)被动性社交网站使用对自尊没有直接的预测作用, 但能通过上行社会比较的中介作用负向预测自尊; (2)被动性社交网站使用不仅能够直接负向预测自我概念清晰性, 还能通过上行社会比较的中介作用对其产生影响; (3)上行社会比较的中介效应受到乐观的调节, 相对于乐观水平高的个体, 间接效应在乐观水平低的个体中更为显著; (4)此外, 在乐观水平高的个体中, 上行社会比较对自尊的负向预测作用以及上行社会比较在被动性社交网站使用与自尊之间的中介作用都不显著, 但是上行社会比较对自我概念清晰性的负向预测作用以及上行社会比较在被动性使用与自我概念清晰性之间的中介作用仍然显著。研究结果有助于揭示被动性社交网站使用行为对自尊以及自我概念清晰性的影响及其作用机制, 对维护与促进个体自我概念健康发展有一定启示意义。

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刘庆奇
牛更枫
范翠英
周宗奎
关键词 被动性社交网站使用 上行社会比较 自尊 自我概念清晰性 乐观    
Abstract

Activities on social network site can be classified into two main types: active use and passive use. Previous studies revealed that active use of social network site, such as self-presentation and self-disclosure, could enhance social capital, self-esteem and life satisfaction, as well as reduce loneliness. On the contrary, passive use of social network site could exert adverse effects on emotional well-being and life satisfaction, and might lead to depression. However, little is known about the effect of passive use of social network site on self-concept, in particular, effects on self-esteem and self-concept clarity. Passive use of social network site exposes individuals to a lot of positive information of others, which may result in upward social comparison. Upward social comparison in turn negatively impacts individuals’ self-esteem and self-concept clarity. But individuals are not equally influenced by upward social comparison. Optimism, as an important personality trait, may impact the way individuals process information of upward social comparison and thus alleviates the negative effects of upward social comparison. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the mediating roles of upward social comparison in the effects of passive use of social network site on self-esteem and self-concept clarity. The study would also test whether the mediating effects of upward social comparison would be moderated by optimism. A sample of 1208 undergraduate students (mean age = 19.86; SD = 1.26) were recruited for the study to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring their passive use of social network site, upward social comparison on social network site, self-esteem, self-concept clarity and optimism. All the measures showed good reliability and validity in the present study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and SPSS macro PROCESS which was specifically developed for assessing the complex models including both mediators and moderators with the bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method. The results were as followings: (1) After controlling for gender, grade and mean time of social network site use per day, passive use of social network site had no significant direct effect on self-esteem. But it could negatively predict self-esteem through the mediation of upward social comparison. (2) Passive use of social network site had significant effect on self-concept clarity, and could also negatively predict self-concept clarity through upward social comparison. (3) The mediating effects of upward social comparison in the association between passive use of social network site and self-esteem and between passive use of social network site and self-concept clarity were both moderated by optimism. The indirect effects were stronger for individuals with a low level of optimism. (4) For individuals with a high level of optimism, the direct effect of upward social comparison on self-esteem and the mediating effect of upward social comparison in the association between passive use of social network site and self-esteem were not statistically significant. But the direct effect of upward social comparison on self-concept clarity and the mediating effect of upward social comparison in the association between passive use of social network site and self-concept clarity were both significant. The present study highlights the mediating effect of upward social comparison and the moderating effect of optimism in the effect of passive use of social network site on self-esteem and self-concept clarity. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effects, mechanisms, and the conditions of passive use of social network site on self-esteem and self-concept clarity.

Key wordspassive use of social network site    upward social comparison    self-esteem    self-concept clarity    optimism
收稿日期: 2016-04-16      出版日期: 2017-01-25
基金资助:

国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD151)、教育部人文社科研究规划基金项目(15YJA190001)、华中师范大学中央高校基本科研业务费重大培育项目(CCNU14Z02004)和北京师范大学中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心自主课题(2016-04-003-BZK01)资助。

通讯作者: 周宗奎, E-mail: zhouzk@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; 范翠英, E-mail: fancy@mail.ccnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
刘庆奇;牛更枫;范翠英;周宗奎. 被动性社交网站使用与自尊和自我概念清晰性:有调节的中介模型[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00060.
LIU Qingqi; NIU Gengfeng; Fan Cuiying; ZHOU Zongkui. Passive use of social network site and its relationships with self-esteem and self-concept clarity: A moderated mediation analysis. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(1): 60-71.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00060      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2017/V49/I1/60
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