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1~6秒时距认知分段性特征
尹华站1 ;李 丹1 ;陈盈羽1 ;黄希庭2
(1重庆师范大学教育科学学院, 重庆沙坪坝 401331) (2西南大学心理学部, 重庆北碚 400715)
The characteristic of 1~6 s duration cognition segmentation
YIN Huazhan1; LI Dan1; CHEN Yingyu1; Huang Xiting2
(1 School of Education Science, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China) (2 School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China)
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摘要 

时距认知分段性指不同长度时距的加工机制和表征方式是不同的。以往研究者对1 s以上时距认知的分段性仍存在分歧, 为了探讨这一主题, 本研究设计了实验1和实验2。实验1采用时间复制任务比较高、低工作记忆容量被试在完成1~6 s视、听时距加工的成绩,结果发现, 时距长度与工作记忆容量或通道均存在交互作用, 被试在复制1 s、2 s的平均复制时距、复制比率及变异系数没有随工作记忆容量或通道而变化, 而复制3 s、4 s、5 s及6 s时, 高WMC组较低WMC组或听觉组较视觉组, 平均复制时距显著更长、复制比率显著更高、变异系数显著更小。实验2采用时间产生任务比较高、低工作记忆容量被试在完成1~6 s视、听时距加工的成绩, 结果也发现, 时距长度与工作记忆容量或通道均存在交互作用, 被试在产生1 s、2 s的平均产生时距、产生比率及变异系数没有随工作记忆容量或通道而变化, 而产生3 s、4 s、5 s及6 s时, 高WMC组较低WMC组或听觉组较视觉组, 平均产生时距显著更短、产生比率显著更低、变异系数显著更小。这意味着1~6 s的时距认知存在分段性, 大约2~3 s可能为分段临界点。时间认知的分段性可以用时间工作记忆说解释, 该假说是时间认知分段综合模型解释短时距加工分段性的具体表现形式。

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尹华站
李丹
陈盈羽
黄希庭
关键词 分段性工作记忆容量 视听通道 时间工作记忆说 时间认知分段综合模型    
Abstract

There are two hypotheses concerning the temporal cognition segmentation: One is segmentation hypothesis and the other is non-segmentation hypothesis. The former one holds that the processing mechanism and representation of different length of time are different. The latter one holds that the processing mechanism and representation of different length of time are identical. However, previous studies have indicated that the two kinds of hypotheses are supported by evidence, respectively. In this research, we explored that the temporal cognition segmentation of 1~6 s through two relatively novel ways. In Experiment 1, A total of 44 participants were engaged in a 2 (memory group: High WMC vs. Low WMC) ´ 2 (Modality: Visual vs. Auditory) ´ 6 (sample duration: 1 s, 2 s, 3 s, 4 s, 5 s vs. 6 s) mixed design experiment, to study the temporal cognition segmentation of 1~6 s, by completing time reproduction task. Three-way ANOVAs were performed using standard duration and modality as within subject factors, memory group as a between-subject factor and mean reproduced interval, ratio (of reproduced interval and sample duration) and coefficient of variation as dependent variables. In Experiment 2, 48 participants were engaged in a mixed design experiment. The procedure was identical to that of experiment 1, except that time reproduction task were instead of time production task. The results showed that 1) in experiment 1, significant main effects of sample duration, modality, and memory group, were found, for the mean reproduced interval, the ratio score, and the coefficient of variation. Specifically, high WMC compared with low WMC, long duration with short duration and auditory with visual, the mean reproduced interval was longer, the ratio score higher and the coefficient of variation smaller. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between duration and modality, and between duration and memory group for the mean reproduced interval, the ratio score, and the coefficient of variation. For 1 s and 2 s, for the mean reproduced interval, the ratio score, and the coefficient of variation, there was no difference between the high WMC group and the low WMC group, or visual group and auditory group. For 3 s, 4 s, 5 s and 6 s, the mean reproduced interval of the high WMC group was significantly longer, the ratio score was significant higher, and the coefficient of variation was significant smaller than those of the low WMC group. For 3 s, 4 s, 5 s and 6 s, the mean reproduced interval of the auditory group was significantly longer, the ratio score was significant higher, and the coefficient of variation was significant smaller than those of the visual group. 2) in experiment 2, significant main effects of sample duration, modality, and memory group, were found, for the mean produced interval, the ratio score, and the coefficient of variation. Specifically, high WMC compared with low WMC, long duration with short duration and auditory with visual, the mean produced interval was shorter, the ratio score lower and the coefficient of variation smaller. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between duration and modality, and between duration and memory group for the mean produced interval, the ratio score, and the coefficient of variation. For 1 s and 2 s, for the mean produced interval, the ratio score, and the coefficient of variation, there was no difference between the high WMC group and the low WMC group, or visual group and auditory group. For 3 s, 4 s, 5 s and 6 s, the mean produced interval of the high WMC group was significantly shorter, the ratio score was significant lower, and the coefficient of variation was significant smaller than those of the low WMC group. For 3 s, 4 s, 5 s and 6 s, the mean produced interval of the auditory group was significantly shorter, the ratio score was significant lower, and the coefficient of variation was significant smaller than those of the visual group. The results demonstrated that the temporal cognition of 1 to 6 seconds is segmented, and the critical point may be 2~3 s, which support segmentation hypothesis. The segmentation of temporal cognition can also be explained by the time working memory hypothesis, which is the form of temporal cognition segmentation model explaining the cognitive mechanism of short-duration processing.

Key wordssegmentation    working memory capacity    modality    temporal working memory    range-synthetic model of temporal cognition
收稿日期: 2015-08-14      出版日期: 2016-09-25
基金资助:

教育部人文社科青年基金(12YJC190035); 第53批中国博士后面上项目(2013M530759); 重庆市教委科技项目(KJ120618, KJ130365); 重庆师范大学校级国家自然科学基金预研项目(14XYY013); 西南大学211工程项目(NSKD11001)资助。

通讯作者: 黄希庭, E-mail: xthuang@swu.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
尹华站;李丹;陈盈羽;黄希庭. 1~6秒时距认知分段性特征[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01119.
YIN Huazhan; LI Dan; CHEN Yingyu; Huang Xiting. The characteristic of 1~6 s duration cognition segmentation. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(9): 1119-1129.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01119      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I9/1119
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[2] 苏彦捷,郭晓娟. 儿童视听觉通道现实监控的发展[J]. , 2007, 39(01): 88-95.
[3] 黄希庭,郑云. 时间判断的视听通道效应的实验研究[J]. , 1993, 25(03): 3-10.
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