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心理学报
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汉语塞−元−塞音序列语境效应机制探讨
刘文理1; 周 详1; 张明亮2
(1南开大学周恩来政府管理学院社会心理学系, 天津 300350) (2山东行政学院, 济南 250014)
Exploring the mechanisms of context effects in Chinese stop-vowel-stop sequences
LIU Wenli1; ZHOU Xiang1; ZHANG Mingliang2
(1 Department of Social Psychology, Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China) (2 Shandong Academy of Governance, Jinan 250014, China)
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摘要 

以汉语塞−元音节(/pa/、/pi/和/pu/)及其声学线索的非言语模拟音为语境音, 汉语/ta/-/ka/连续体为目标音, 在3个实验中考察了语境音对汉语听者识别目标音的影响及潜在机制。实验1发现3个塞−元音节的语境效应与频谱对比效应的预期部分一致, 与发音特征理论的预期相矛盾。实验2和实验3发现3个塞−元音节关键声学线索(第二共振峰轨迹)的非言语模拟音和所有共振峰轨迹的非言语模拟音表现出类似的语境效应, 二者与3个塞−元音节的语境效应总体上一致, 但细节方面存在一些差别。实验结果表明塞−元−塞音序列的语境效应主要源于语境音节关键声学线索的差异, 这为听觉理论提供了支持, 但语境音的语音范畴也部分影响到3个音节的语境效应模式。另外实验结果发现远离目标音关键声学线索频率区的语境音也促进了特定语音范畴的识别, 可能由于语境音激活了相应语音范畴的声学线索。

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刘文理
周详
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关键词 语境效应 塞−元音节 非言语模拟音 频谱对比效应 协同发音的知觉弥补    
Abstract

The perception of speech sounds is affected by neighboring speech or nonspeech context. Several theories have been put forward to explain the context effects. The gesture theory suggests that context effects reflect perceptual compensation of coarticulation, and speech perception implicitly takes into account articulatory dynamics of speech production. The auditory theory suggests that context effects reflect a kind of spectral contrast effects, and are just the result of general auditory processes. With Chinese stop-vowel-stop sequences as materials, the aim of the present study was to test the explanatory power of several theories for context effects, and explored the internal mechanisms of context effects in Chinese stop-vowel-stop sequences. In experiment 1, synthetic /pa/, /pi/, and /pu/ served as context sounds, and /ta/-/ka/ contrast continuum served as target sounds. Thirty Chinese undergraduate listeners were asked to identify target sounds. According to acoustic cues and places of articulation of three syllables, auditory theory and gesture theory made different predictions about context effects. The results showed that there were significantly more /ta/ responses in /pi/ context, and more /ka/ responses in /pa/ and /pu/ context. The results were partly consistent with the prediction of spectral contrast effects, but the gesture theory failed to predict the effect pattern. Experiment 2 adopted tone analogues of F2 trajectories (the crucial acoustic-cue variations among three context syllables) of /pa/, /pi/, and /pu/ as context sounds. Twenty-six Chinese undergraduate listeners participated in the experiment. The results found that F2 analogs of /pi/ led to more /ta/ responses, and F2 analogs of /pa/ and /pu/ produced more /ka/ responses. The overall result similarity between experiment 1 and 2 showed that the differences of context effects among three syllables mainly resulted from the critical acoustic cue differences between three syllables. The results also found that acoustic cues (F2 analogs of /pa/ and /pu/) far from the critical frequency areas of the /ta/-/ka/ series could influence /ta/-/ka/ continuum identification. Although overall similarity, there were still some differences between experiment 1 and 2. Experiment 3 used sine-wave speech (SWS) of /pa/, /pi/, and /pu/ as context sounds. Sine-wave speech modeled all formant trajectories of speech sounds. The aim of experiment 3 was to test whether the differences between experiment 1 and 2 were due to the effects of other acoustic cues (F1, F3 and F4). Twenty-one Chinese listeners served as participants. The results showed that /pa/-SWS context produced the most “ga” responses, the second was /pu/-SWS context, /pi/-SWS context produced the least “ga” responses. The results were similar to those of experiment 2. So the result differences between experiment 1 and 2 were not due to the effects of other acoustic cues, and more likely due to the phonetic category perception of three syllables. These results indicated that context effect differences between stop-vowel syllables mainly originated from differences of critical acoustic cues, and provided support for the auditory-based explanation of context effects. Gesture theory failed to anticipate the effect pattern of three syllables. The present results also expanded the range of auditory interaction types. In addition to spectral contrast effects, acoustic cues in context sounds far from critical frequency channels can also promote specific phonetic category identification.

Key wordscontext effects    stop-vowel syllables    non-speech analogues    spectral contrast effects    perceptual compensation of coarticulation
收稿日期: 2015-08-25      出版日期: 2016-09-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(31200848)、国家社会科学基金项目(12CYY022)资助。

通讯作者: 刘文理, E-mail: wenli_160@sina.com   
引用本文:   
刘文理;周详;张明亮. 汉语塞−元−塞音序列语境效应机制探讨[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01057.
LIU Wenli; ZHOU Xiang; ZHANG Mingliang. Exploring the mechanisms of context effects in Chinese stop-vowel-stop sequences. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(9): 1057-1069.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01057      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I9/1057
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[2] 鲁忠义,范宁. 工作记忆广度与汉语句子语境效应的关系[J]. , 2006, 38(01): 22-29.
[3] 朱晓平. 阅读中课文语境对汉语单词识别的影响[J]. , 1992, 24(01): 52-59.
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