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心理学报
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高、低趋近积极情绪对不同注意加工阶段的影响
刘芳; 丁锦红; 张钦
(首都师范大学心理系, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048)
Positive affect and selective attention: Approach-motivation intensity influences the early and late attention processing stages
LIU Fang; DING Jinhong; ZHANG Qin
(Beijing Key Laboratory of “Learning & Cognition”; Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China)
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摘要 

本研究采用事件相关电位(ERP)技术和Flanker任务, 探讨由甜点和风景图片分别诱发的高、低趋近积极情绪对注意的早期和晚期加工的影响。同时, 为更精细考察情绪对视觉注意范围早期加工阶段的影响, 在75%的Flanker试次中加入了一个白色方块探测刺激, 该刺激位于中央Flanker字母的左侧或右侧。研究结果表明, 在注意加工的早期感知阶段, 高趋近积极情绪下, 带有白色探测刺激的Flanker字母比低趋近积极情绪条件下诱发了更小的P1, 表明高趋近积极情绪窄化了早期注意加工范围; 在注意加工的晚期选择阶段, 高趋近积极情绪下的Flanker字母诱发了更大的N2b成分, 低趋近积极情绪下诱发了更大的P3成分, 表明高趋近积极情绪增强了对干扰的抑制能力, 而低趋近积极情绪下个体调用了更多的注意资源用以加工周边刺激。

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刘芳
丁锦红
张钦
关键词 积极情绪 趋近动机 注意 ERP    
Abstract

According to the Motivational Dimensional Model of Affect, positive affects that varies in approach motivational intensity have diverse impacts on cognitive processes. Previous studies used the local-global visual-processing task and Navon task to examine the attentional consequences of approach-motivated positive affect, and demonstrated that positive affect which is high in approach-motivation reduced the breadth of attention, whereas low approach-motivated positive affect increased global attention. Most of these researches were done by measuring response time (RT). So far, however, relatively little is known about the neural mechanisms of this phenomenon. Studies of attention have suggested that attention operates at both early (sensory input) and late (response selection) processing stages. The high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) allows for a more detailed analysis of the time course of attention processing. Therefore the present study used ERP technology and Flanker task to explore whether the effect of motivational intensity on the breadth of attention occurred at the early or the late attention processing stage. Twenty participants (six men and fourteen women) took part in this experiment. Pictures of dessert and scene were used to induce participants’ high and low approach-motivated positive affect. After viewing each picture, participants were asked to accomplish Flanker task, which was, respond to the central target letter by pressing a corresponding button. In 75% of the Flanker tasks, a white rectangular probe stimulus was presented on the left or right of the central letter. EEG activity was recorded during the whole process of the experiment. The results showed that, during the interval of 90~130 ms after Flanker letters onset, the Flanker letters with probe stimuli under high approach-motivated positive affect evoked smaller P1 than the low approach-motivated positive affect. It might suggest that high approach-motivated positive affect narrows the focus of attention during visual input stage. In addition, the Flanker letters under high approach-motivated positive affect evoked the more negative N2b component between 280 and 350 ms; however, at 400~600 ms, the low approach-motivated positive affect evoked a larger P3 component. These results indicated that the high approach-motivated positive affect enhanced the capability of interference suppression, and the participants under low approach-motivated positive affect would pay more attention to periphery stimulus. In sum, the emotional motivational intensity not only impacted the early stage of attention processing but also modulated the late attention processing.

Key wordspositive affect    motivational intensity    attention    ERP
收稿日期: 2015-09-26      出版日期: 2016-07-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金(31470980)资助。

通讯作者: 张钦, E-mail: zhangqin@cnu.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
刘芳; 丁锦红; 张钦. 高、低趋近积极情绪对不同注意加工阶段的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00794.
LIU Fang; DING Jinhong; ZHANG Qin. Positive affect and selective attention: Approach-motivation intensity influences the early and late attention processing stages. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(7): 794-803.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00794      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I7/794
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