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心理学报
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线索靶子关联和搜索策略对注意捕获的作用 ——来自意义线索的证据
王慧媛1; 隋洁2; 张明3
(1长春师范大学心理学系, 长春 130032) (2清华大学心理学系, 北京 100084) (3苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123)
The effect of cue-target relevance and search strategies on attentional capture: Evidence from meaning cues
WANG Huiyuan1; SUI Jie2; ZHANG Ming3
(1 Department of Psychology, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130032, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China) (3 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China)
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摘要 

采用线索化范式, 操作性地建立线索和靶子间的关联, 通过比较不同搜索策略任务下不同线索靶子关联条件间的捕获量考察关联水平及搜索策略对注意捕获的作用, 并分析抽象的意义概念对空间注意分配的调节作用。结果发现(1)意义线索的注意捕获符合关联性的注意定向假说, 只有符合当前注意控制定势的线索才具有捕获注意的能力; (2)知觉关联在调节无意注意定向上具有主导性, 调节能力强, 能将其他因素效应掩盖; 语义关联单独作用时对无意注意定向有调节作用, 但调节程度小, 效应易被掩盖; (3)搜索策略虽然能够大大提高反应速度, 但只有基于特征独子的搜索模式对无意注意定向有调节作用, 且调节能力有限。研究再次认证了空间无意注意转移中注意控制定势的作用, 同时指出抽象的概念加工能够根据当前的环境有效指导后续的选择和行为。

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王慧媛
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关键词 线索靶子关联 搜索策略 注意捕获 意义线索 注意控制定势    
Abstract

It is well known that involuntary shifting of spatial visual attention was modulated by perceptional relevance and meaningful concept relevance among stimuli as well as strategies employed for search performing, and a very recent study further showed the interactions among these factors (Wang, Zhang, & Sui, 2014). However, there were several pitfalls in the study, (1) cue-related stimuli were relatively not abstract with less social meanings, (2) the experiment did not systematically measure cue-target relations, (3) the absolute response times were impaired by the attributes of the Chinese character targets. These issues were addressed in the present study. A modified spatial cueing paradigm was employed in the current study. A trial began with a fixation screen presented for 500 ms, followed by an uninformative red or white Chinese character cue which appeared for 100 ms. Then a fixation screen was showed for 100 ms, followed by a target screen with four squares for 500 ms, either four color squares or one red and three white squares. Participants had to make a judgment for the gap orientation of the red target square while ignoring other distractors. Targets were randomly presented at the one of four locations, either cued or non-cued (valid vs. invalided trials). The effect of attentional capture referred to slower responses to targets in the invalid than valid trials. In the current study, there were four experimental conditions according to cue-target combinations for singleton detection mode task and feature search mode task. The order of experimental conditions was counterbalanced across participants. The results showed that there was no the capture effect in the meaningful cues only when feature search mode was induced by itself, but, the capture effect was observed when singleton detection mode was used, and when the semantic relevance between the cue and the target was established. The capture effects were also significant when there was the perceptional relevance between the cue and target. In addition, the effect from perception relevance was greater than that from semantic relevance and singleton detection mode. In contrast, the capture effects induced by singleton detection mode and by semantic relevance were eliminated when perceptional relevance occurred. It was concluded that (1) attentional capture from meaningful cues was consistent with contingent attentional orienting hypothesis, the cues may capture attention only based on the current attentional control setting, (2) perceptional relevance was dominant on modulating the involuntary attentional orienting, while semantic relevance affected the involuntary attentional orienting but the capture effect was overlapped when other factors operated, (3) although the search strategies reduced the response latencies greatly, the strategy based on singleton detection mode modulated the involuntary attentional orienting, nevertheless the modulating capacity was very limited.

Key wordscue-target relevance    search strategies    attentional capture    meaningful cues    attentional control setting
收稿日期: 2015-04-22      出版日期: 2016-07-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金(31170973和31371025)资助。

通讯作者: 隋洁, E-mail: jie.sui@gmail.com; 张明, E-mail: psyzm@suda.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
王慧媛; 隋洁; 张明. 线索靶子关联和搜索策略对注意捕获的作用 ——来自意义线索的证据[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00783.
WANG Huiyuan; SUI Jie; ZHANG Ming. The effect of cue-target relevance and search strategies on attentional capture: Evidence from meaning cues. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(7): 783-793.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00783      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I7/783
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