ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (5): 472-481.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00472

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

语言转换对非熟练双语者不同认知控制成分的即时影响

刘聪1;焦鲁1;孙逊1;王瑞明1,2   

  1. (1华南师范大学心理应用研究中心/心理学院; 2广东省心理健康与认知科学重点实验室, 广州 510631)
  • 收稿日期:2015-02-06 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 王瑞明, E-mail: wruiming@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金教育学项目(CBA130125)资助。

Immediate effect of language switch on non-proficient bilinguals’ cognitive control components

LIU Cong1; JIAO Lu1; SUN Xun1; WANG Ruiming1,2   

  1. (1 Center for Studies of Psychological Application/School of Psychology, South China Normal University; 2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, Guangzhou 510631, China)
  • Received:2015-02-06 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-25
  • Contact: WANG Ruiming, E-mail: wruiming@163.com

摘要:

语言转换情境是否影响非熟练双语者的认知控制存在争议。实验1和实验2分别采用不同的实验范式探讨语言转换对非熟练双语者的认知控制是否会有即时的影响, 以及对不同认知控制成分的影响是否会有不同。结果表明, 语言转换情境能够即时地促进反应抑制, 阻碍干扰抑制, 但对认知灵活性没有影响, 同时说明了反应抑制、干扰抑制和认知灵活性属于3种不同的认知成分, 其内在作用机制不同。此外, 研究结果还进一步说明了双语者的认知控制优势是双语者长期双语使用的结果, 为双语优势的内在机制提供了实验支持。

关键词: 语言转换, 语境, 认知控制成分, 双语优势

Abstract:

Previous studies have found that lifelong bilingual language experience led to bilingual cognitive control advantage. However, a recent study proposes a new viewpoint that bilingual cognitive control depends on fast language context rather than long-term language experience. Thus, whether the cognitive control components are influenced by language switching context is still an open question. In the current study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the immediate influence of language switch on cognitive control’s different components. Experiment 1 examined whether language switching context had immediate influence on cognitive control and whether the influences are existed on various components of cognitive control. Thirty participants joined in the Experiment 1 that contains three parts: pre-test part, language switching part and post-test part. In the pre-test part, all participants were asked to complete a “faces task”, which was used to test three components of cognitive control capacity (i.e., response inhibition, interference suppression and cognitive flexibility). Then, they performed a language switch task, in which they were required to name some Arabic numbers from 1 to 8 in Chinese or English according to the cues. When the cue was a green square (or red), participants named the Arabic numbers in Chinese (or English) when the cue was a red square. Finally, participants took part in the “faces task” again in the post-test part. Results showed that language switching context could influence bilinguals’ different components of cognitive control. Specifically, it can facilitate response inhibition and disturb interference suppression, while cannot affect cognitive flexibility. Therefore, response inhibition, interference suppression, and cognitive flexibility were distinct cognitive control components, which had different neural basis. Experiment 2 was conducted to test two questions. First, we intended to replicate the immediate effect that was observed in Experiment 1. Second, we aimed to explore the causes of the immediate effect. A between-subject design was used in Experiment 2. Ninety-three participants were divided into three groups. Each group performed different language naming tasks. One group named the Arabic numbers in Chinese, while the second group in English. The third group performed language switching task that is the same as Experiment 1. Then, all groups joined in the “faces task.” The results were consistent with Experiment 1, which may suggest that our results are robust. In addition, the results showed that non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals need more response inhibition because they preferred to use English in language switching. Thus their response inhibition capacity improved by exercises. However, this effect may hinder bilinguals’ interference suppression, while we did not find such effect on cognitive flexibility. Taken together, results from these two experiments suggested that language switching context had immediate influences on non-proficient bilinguals’ cognitive control ability. Specifically, it could facilitate response inhibition and disturb interference suppression, while no such effect was found on cognitive flexibility. Besides, the results showed that response inhibition, interference suppression, and cognitive flexibility had independent mechanisms. Furthermore, the current study illustrated that the bilingual cognitive control advantages were the results of long-term bilingual language use, which revealed the internal mechanisms of the bilingual advantage.

Key words: language switch, language context, components of cognitive control, bilingual advantage