ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (5): 457-471.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00457

• 论文 •    下一篇

中国象棋经验棋手与新手的知觉差异:来自眼动的证据

王福兴1;侯秀娟1;段朝辉1;刘华山1;李卉2   

  1. (1华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079) (2天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-12 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘华山, E-mail: hsliupsycho@263.net; 王福兴, E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自科基金青年项目(#31300864)、中国博士后科学基金资助项目(2015M580210)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(CCNU15ZD013)资助。

The perceptual differences between experienced Chinese chess players and novices: Evidence from eye movement

WANG Fuxing1; HOU Xiujuan1; DUAN Zhaohui1; LIU Huashan1; LI Hui2   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China) (2 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China)
  • Received:2015-01-12 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-25
  • Contact: LIU Huashan, E-mail: hsliupsycho@263.net; WANG Fuxing, E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

摘要:

为探讨中国象棋领域内的专长效应及象棋专长的知觉编码优势, 研究采用中国象棋棋局为实验材料, 对比了经验棋手和新手在观看象棋棋局时视觉搜索、变化觉察和对棋盘的记忆。实验1呈现真实棋局和随机棋局, 要求被试观看5秒后复盘, 结果发现经验棋手的复盘正确率高于新手; 经验棋手注视棋盘的眼跳幅度和瞳孔直径更大; 经验棋手更多注视棋子间而不是棋子本身。实验2采用移动窗口范式控制了观看棋盘时视野大小, 结果发现经验棋手在副中央凹呈现时复盘正确率更高, 而新手不受视野大小的影响。实验3采用闪烁范式要求棋手觉察变化的棋子, 结果发现经验棋手的觉察速度和正确率都优于新手; 而且经验棋手在报告变化前就利用中央凹和副中央凹注视到了变化的棋子。结论认为:中国象棋与国际象棋类似, 也存在专长的知觉编码优势效应; 经验棋手不仅对棋盘记忆更好, 而且可以利用存贮的组块和长期练习经验选择性加工棋盘结构信息, 利用副中央凹提取信息, 具有更大的知觉广度。研究为象棋专家可以利用副中央凹加工棋盘及具有更强的知觉编码能力提供了直接的证据。

关键词: 专长, 经验棋手, 新手, 眼动, 中国象棋

Abstract:

Previous chess studies have found that the experienced chess players who are better than novices on memorizing chess board show superior perceptual encoding advantage. However, the Chinese chess have the similar expertise superior advantage? The present research designed three experiments to explore whether Chinese chess experts performed better on perceptual encoding, chess board memory, and detection than novices. Ten Chinese chess players who have already got more than 10-years experiences were regarded as experienced players. Fifteen college students who could understand the basic rules of Chinese chess were recruited as novices. EyeLink 1000 desktop eye tracker with 1000 Hz sample rate was used to record participants’ eye movement. Materials were the real Chinese chess playing-board pictures with 14 pieces on board. Each board had seven red and seven blue pieces. All three experimental materials were assessed by two experienced players on the authenticity and difficulty. In experiment 1, we presented random chess board or real chess board to participants. Each board presented for five seconds. Then, we asked participants to reproduce what they have seen on a real chess board. All the eye fixation data were recorded during the 5s viewing. In experiment 2, we used moving window paradigm to control their visual field size, including one piece size (1.3 degree visual angle), four pieces size (2.9 degree) and 16 pieces size (5.1 degree), to explore whether the experienced players could use the parafovea to process and extract information from chess board. Experiment 3 used flicker paradigm to investigate whether experienced players could notice the change much faster than novices and use their parafovea to fixate the changed pieces before their oral reports. Results of experiment 1 suggested that experienced Chinese chess players could recall much more pieces in the real chess board and random chess board than novices. In addition, experienced players showed wider saccade span and greater pupil size than novices. Consistent with the previous studies, the experienced chess players fixated more between pieces rather than on the pieces, but the novices allocated more attention on the pieces. Experiment 2 showed that, the experienced players can take advantage of parafoveal processing (16 and 4-piece window) to remember more pieces than the fovea condition (one piece window); but the novices did not show this difference. The eye movement data also showed that the experienced players had wider saccade span than novices when pieces in the parafovea (16 pieces window). Results of experiment 3 showed that the experienced players perceived changed pieces faster and their correct rate were higher than novices. For the changed pieces, the eye movement data indicated that experienced chess players could perceive changes quicker than novices with fovea and parafovea. In conclusion, compared to novices, experienced Chinese chess players can remember and reproduce more chess pieces than novices. Second, experienced players allocate more attention on between pieces based on their chess chunks and templates. Third, experienced Chinese chess players have wider visual span, and can use parafovea to encode information from chess board. Finally, Chinese experienced chess players can perceive changed pieces quickly and more accurately, showing superior perceptual advantage. In sum, consistent with the chess studies, Chinese chess did have expertise superior advantage and superior perceptual encoding advantage.

Key words: expertise, experienced chess player, novice, eye movement, Chinese chess