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心理学报
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认知重评对负性效价的抑制促进条件性恐惧消退
廖素群1;郑希付2
(1韶关学院教育学院, 广东韶关512005) (2华南师范大学心理学院, 广州 510631)
Inhibition of cognitive reappraisal on the negative valence facilitates extinction in conditioned fear
LIAO Sunqun1; ZHENG Xifu2
(1 Department of education, Shaoguan University, Saoguan 512005, China)
(2
School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
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摘要 

认知重评能有效降低个体对情感刺激的负性情绪体验, 但指导性认知重评在恐惧记忆治疗中效果存在争议。本文将认知重评范式与辨别式条件恐惧反应范式结合, 以效价和US预期值为指标, 探讨指导性认知重评训练对恐惧情绪习得和消退的影响效果。以低认知重评能力个体为被试, 在实验前24 h进行指导性认知重评训练。条件性恐惧任务为期2天, 第一天完成条件性恐惧的习得和消退任务, 第二天完成条件性恐惧的再消退任务。结果显示, 经过重评训练后个体在条件性恐惧任务中的恐惧情绪效价显著较低, 说明认知重评有效降低低认知重评能力个体在急性应激状态下的负性情绪体验。所有被试均成功完成辨别式条件性恐惧的习得和消退任务, 因此重评训练并不削弱个体对危险或者安全信息的辨别能力。但在条件性恐惧的消退过程中, 认知重评指导训练加快了恐惧消退, 且24 h后测得的条件性恐惧程度显著较低, 说明指导性重评提高了条件性恐惧记忆的消退效率, 并减弱了条件性恐惧的消退返回。

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廖素群
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关键词 认知重评条件性恐惧负性效价消退消退返回    
Abstract

The negative cognitive bias is common in affective disorder patients, which is resistance to treatment and recovery. Cognitive reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy that involves the process of changing the emotion response by reinterpreting the meaning of the emotional stimulus. It has been shown that cognitive reappraisal decreases negative cognitive and emotion valance effectively. Conditioned fear is an important model of affective disorder. However, whether reappraisal changes the negative cognitive and emotion in the conditioned fear is controversial. Here, we investigate whether the short-term cognitive reappraisal training could change the process of conditioned fear for individuals with low reappraisal ability and further reveal the influence of cognitive reappraisal on the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear.

Sixty-eight healthy individuals whose reappraisal scores were below the median of emotion regulation queationnaire were recruited and then assigned to reappraisal group and control group randomly. One or two days before the fearing condition, the experiment group was trained to reappraisal and learn how to decrease negative emotion to negative or neutral pictures. Like the program of Shurick (2013), the reappraisal training consisted of three parts: First, Participants were asked to talk about their feelings on a neutral picture such as “a person lying on a hospital bed”. Second, they were asked to reappraise the picture to reduce the negative emotion and isolate the emotional association between different pictures, such as,although the person seems weak, it is merely a scene in a film and is not real”. To isolate the emotional association between two pictures, for example, one picture was a dog and the other picture was a patient. The negative association was that the dog bitted the person seriously and the person was treated in hospital, while the positive association would decrease negative emotion. for example, “the dog was waiting for its master who was in the hospital”. Third, the participants were asked to practice reappraisal to life events and negative pictures. The differential conditioned fear paradigm was used in two days. Participants were asked to complete acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear on the first day and re- extinction on the second day (24 hours later). CS fear valance were orally reported during the time of pre-acquisition, post-acquisition, post-extinction, pre re-extinction and post re-extinction. All pictures were displayed and the US expectancy was recorded by the e-prime 1.1 during the conditions of acquisition, extinction and re-extinction. CS fear, and US-expectancy were analyzed using a mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with the groups as the between-subjects factor, and stimulus (CSvs. CS+) and trial (i.e., stimulus presentation) as the within-subjects factors.

A time × group repeated measures ANOVA indicated that CS fear increased significantly from pre-acquisition to post-acquisition [F(1, 61) = 44.56, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.76] and decreased remarkably from post-acquisition to post-extinction [F(1, 61) = 13.56, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.53] in two groups. The independent samples t-test for CS fear showed that, a significant difference in CS+ was observed between the reappraisal and control groups [post-acquisition: CS+ (t(28) = 10.32, p < 0.01), CS(t(28) = 4.32, p = 0.0502); post-extinction: (CS+: t(28) = 11.58, p < 0.05; CS: t(28) = 1.43, p = 0.282); pre re-extinction (CS+:t(28) = 25.63, p < 0.001;CS: t(28) = 12.72, p < 0.05)]. A trial × CS type × group repeated measures ANOVA of US expectancy revealed that both groups acquired fear at acquisition [F(1,61) = 4.34, p = 0.069] and showed no differences. However, the interaction of group × type was significant [F(1,61) = 5.54, p = 0.047] at extinction, great difference were revealed by one samples t-test for CS+ and CS− [ CS+: t(28) = 7.11, p < 0.01 and CS−: t(28) = 10.40, p < 0.001]. The US expectancy of CS+ was much lower and declined faster in reappraisal group than that in the control group, F(1,61) = 72.26, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.53. In the last trial at extinction, the US expectancy to CS was still observed significant differences between groups (CS+: t(28) = 19.26, p < 0.001; CS: t(28) = 11.06, p < 0.05). At re-extinction on the second day, the US expectancy of trials showed that both groups extinct the conditioned fear successfully, F(11,647) = 27.26, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.52. Compared to the US expectancy of e12 (the last trail of first extinction) and E1 (the first trail of re-extinction), the CS expectancy of the reappraisal group were much lower than those of the control group (CS: t(28) = 12.12, p < 0.05; CS+: t(28) = 18.42, p < 0.001), which indicated that reappraisal promotes the extinction of conditioned fear and inhibited the return of conditioned fear.

In conclusion, the short-term reappraisal training can reduce the negative emotion effectively for the individuals with low scores of cognitive reappraisal, without changing the ability to distinguish safe signals from dangerous signals in the acute stress state. Moreover, cognitive reappraisal effectively reduces the fear in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear and improve the conditioned fear extinction, as well as inhibited the return of conditioned fear.

Key wordscognitive reappraisal    fear conditioned    negative valence    extinction    extinction recall
收稿日期: 2015-04-28      出版日期: 2016-04-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(31371057), 幸福广州心理服务与辅导基地资助。

通讯作者: 郑希付, zhengxf@scnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
廖素群;郑希付. 认知重评对负性效价的抑制促进条件性恐惧消退[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00352.
LIAO Sunqun; ZHENG Xifu. Inhibition of cognitive reappraisal on the negative valence facilitates extinction in conditioned fear. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(4): 352-361.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00352      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I4/352
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