ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 305-317.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00305

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

运动员运动道德推脱与运动亲反社会行为的关系

王栋1;陈作松2   

  1. (1福建师范大学体育科学学院, 福州 350117) (2上海交通大学体育系, 上海 200240)
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-20 出版日期:2016-03-25 发布日期:2016-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈作松, E-mail: zschen1971@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    福建省社会科学规划青年项目(2014C070)、教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(13YJA890002)资助。

Relationship between moral disengagement in sport and prosocial and antisocial behaviors in Chinese athletes

WANG Dong1; CHEN Zuosong2   

  1. (1 School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China)
    (2 Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China)
  • Received:2015-01-20 Online:2016-03-25 Published:2016-03-25
  • Contact: CHEN Zuosong, E-mail: zschen1971@126.com

摘要:

为寻找适合我国运动员运动道德推脱的有效测量工具, 揭示运动道德推脱与运动亲反社会行为的关系, 采用心理测量法对我国运动员进行了研究。结果表明:(1)我国运动员运动道德推脱包含行为重建、有利比较、委婉标签、非人性化和非责任; (2)性别、项目类型和运动等级可有效解释和预测运动反社会行为, 但对运动亲社会行为的解释和预测效应较低, 项目类型成为负向预测运动反社会行为的最佳变量; (3)在控制性别、项目类型和运动等级的基础上, 非责任成为负向预测运动亲社会行为(队友和对手)的最佳指标; 委婉标签和行为重建分别成为正向预测运动反社会行为(队友)和运动反社会行为(对手)的最佳指标。文章说明运动道德推脱可以解释和预测我国运动员的运动亲反社会行为。

关键词: 运动员, 道德推脱, 亲社会行为, 反社会行为

Abstract:

Moral disengagement is a psychological process in which people use different cognitive strategies to justify their potentially problematic actions and to reduce feelings of shame and guilt. Athletes with high level of moral disengagement in sport may show more antisocial behavior and less prosocial behavior than other athletes. To date, most research investigating prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport has focused on behaviors directed at opponents. However, recent studies have also investigated prosocial and antisocial behavior within sport teams. Since the majority of past studies have been conducted in western countries, we know little about moral disengagement of Chinese athletes. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of sport moral disengagement and to examine the relationship between sport moral disengagement and prosocial and antisocial behavior among Chinese athletes.
Study 1 sought to develop a sport-specific measure of moral disengagement for Chinese athletes. Forty-eight items were developed based on content analysis of interviews with athletes and mass media reports of transgressions of athletes. Two hundred and fifty-four Chinese athletes were asked to rate their agreement with each item, and their responses were used exploratory factor analyses (EFA). Results showed that 20 items loaded on five factors: (1) conduct reconstrual, (2) advantageous comparison, (3) euphemistic labeling, (4) dehumanization, and (5) non-responsibility. After this, another 283 Chinese athletes filled in the questionnaire. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the 5-factor solution was stable and the internal reliability of each of the factors was acceptable.
Study 2 tested the relationship between moral disengagement in sport and prosocial and antisocial behavior towards teammates and opponents. Three hundred and six Chinese athletes responded to the 20-items moral disengagement questionnaire developed in Study 1 and the Chinese version of prosocial and antisocial behavior in sports scale (PABSS). Results from multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) showed that gender, type of sport, and competition level can predict antisocial behavior towards teammates and opponent (R2=12.88, p < 0.01; R2 =41.31, p < 0.01) better than prosocial behavior towards teammates and opponents (R2 =5.37, p < 0.01; R2 =6.23, p < 0.01). Type of sport was the strongest predictor which negatively predicted antisocial behavior towards teammates and opponents (β = −0.29, t = −5.32, p < 0.01; β = −0.49, t = −9.94, p < 0.01). After controlling for gender, type of sport, and competition level, non-responsibility was the strongest predictor which can significantly and negatively predict prosocial behavior towards teammates and opponents (β = −0.31, t = −5.81, p < 0.01; β = −0.28, t = −5.27, p < 0.01); euphemistic labeling was the strongest predictor to positively predict antisocial behavior towards teammates (β = 0.23, t = 4.16, p < 0.01); conduct reconstrual was the strongest predictor which could significantly and positively predict antisocial behavior towards opponents (β = 0.25, t = 5.33, p < 0.01).= 0.06, F(3, 302)= 0.05, F(3, 302)= 0.29, F(3, 302) = 0.11, F(3, 302)

The present study contributes to research into moral disengagement in sports by developing a valid measurement instrument for moral disengagement in Chinese athletes, and by analyzing the relationship between sport moral disengagement and prosocial and antisocial behavior towards teammates and opponents in Chinese athletes.

Key words: athlete, moral disengagement, prosocial behavior, antisocial behavior