ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 221-229.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00221

• 论文 •    下一篇

选择性注意对听觉内隐学习的影响

李秀君;石文典   

  1. (上海师范大学教育学院, 上海 200234)
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-29 出版日期:2016-03-25 发布日期:2016-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 石文典, E-mail: swd_nx@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(31160201)、上海师范大学研究生优秀成果(学位论文)培育项目(A-6001-14-001205)资助。

Influence of selective attention on implicit learning with auditory stimuli

LI Xiujun; SHI Wendian   

  1. (Education School of Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China)
  • Received:2014-12-29 Online:2016-03-25 Published:2016-03-25
  • Contact: SHI Wendian, E-mail: swd_nx@163.com

摘要:

内隐学习被认为是人类无意识、无目的获得复杂规则的自动化过程。已有研究表明, 在人工语法学习范式下, 视觉内隐学习的发生需要选择性注意。为了考察选择性注意对内隐学习的影响是否具有通道特异性, 本研究以90名大学生为被试, 以人工语法为学习任务, 采用双耳分听技术, 在听觉通道同时呈现具有不同规则的字母序列和数字序列, 考查被试在听觉刺激下对注意序列和未注意序列构成规则的习得情况。结果发现:只有选择注意的序列规则被习得, 未选择注意的序列规则未能被习得。研究表明:在人工语法学习范式下, 只有选择注意的刺激维度能够发生内隐学习。选择性注意对内隐学习的影响具有跨通道的适用性, 不仅适用于视觉刺激, 也同样适用于听觉刺激。

关键词: 选择性注意, 人工语法, 双耳分听

Abstract:

 

Implicit learning refers to people’s tendency to acquire complex regularities or patterns without intention or awareness (Reber, 1989). Given regularities are acquired without intention, and largely unconsciousness, implicit learning is often considered to occur without attention. The processes responsible for such learning were once contrasted with a selective intentional “system” (Guo et al., 2013; Jiang & Leung, 2005). However, more recent researches show that actually implicit learning processes are highly selective (Eitam, schul, & Hassin, 2009; Eitam et al., 2013; Tanaka, Kiyokawa, Yamada, Dienes, & Shigemasu, 2008; Weiermann & Meier, 2012). Therefore it is necessary to do more exploration about the roles of attention in implicit learning. So far, all previous Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) studies used visual stimuli. Thus, it remains unclear whether AGL may be due to the presence of a visual regularity. To investigate the generality of effect of selective attention on AGL, we extend the experimental materials to auditory stimuli.
90 college students were recruited in two experiments. Sequences of letters and sequences of digits with different grammar rules were presented simultaneously through Dichotic listening technology. In Experiment 1, one group of participants were instructed to memorize the sequences of letters; another, the sequences of digits. In Experiment 2, all participants were instructed to memorize the above two types of sequences.
Results showed that: (1) when only one of the two stimulus dimensions was selected to attend (Experiment 1), participants learned the structure underlying the selected, but not that one of the ignored dimension; (2) when both stimulus dimensions were selected to attend, both structures were learned by participants (Experiment 2). These findings revealed that participants learned only the grammar for the dimensions to which they are attended.

The results of two studies strongly suggest that AGL occurs with auditory stimuli and visual perceptual learning is not necessary. The effect of selective attention on AGL is applicable across modalities, it is not only suitable for visual stimulus, but also applies to the auditory stimulus.

Key words: selective attention, artificial grammar learning, dichotic listening