ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (12): 1486-1498.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01486

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

摩梭走访制下的阿注关系:是亲属还是朋友?

肖二平1;张积家2;王娟3   

  1. (1杭州师范大学心理学系, 杭州 311121) (2中国人民大学心理学系, 北京 100872)
    (3江苏师范大学教育科学学院, 徐州 221116)
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-25 出版日期:2015-12-25 发布日期:2015-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 张积家, E-mail: zhangjj1955@163.com; 肖二平, E-mail: Sweetlemonxiao@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金重大项目(13&ZD155)、教育部人文社会科学研究项目青年基金项目成果(12YJC850023)、杭州市哲学社会科学规划课题重点项目成果(A13WH05)、中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助)项目(14XNLQ05)、杭州师范大学人文社会科学振兴计划“望道青年学者激励项目” (RWWD1301)成果。

The Azhu Relationship under the Sexual Union in Moso Matrilineal Society: Akin to Kinship or Friendship?

XIAO Erping1; ZHANG Jijia2; WANG Juan3   

  1. (1 Department of Psychology, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China)
    (2 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China)
    (3 Department of Education Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China)
  • Received:2015-05-25 Online:2015-12-25 Published:2015-12-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia, E-mail: zhangjj1955@163.com; XIAO Erping, E-mail: Sweetlemonxiao@163.com

摘要:

通过两个实验考察摩梭人和汉族人在性吸引和利他行为上对亲属、阿注/情侣、朋友和陌生人的情绪反应和行为倾向, 以确定在摩梭走访制下阿注关系的性质。实验1要求被试分别想象与亲属、阿注/情侣、异性朋友和陌生人发生性关系, 然后评定自己的情绪, 发现两个民族的乱伦禁忌存在着民族差异, 汉族人对与亲属发生性关系的厌恶感强于摩梭人, 对与阿注/情侣、朋友和陌生人发生性关系的厌恶情绪评定却不存在民族差异。被试在想象与特定对象发生性关系时激发的情绪存在着性别差异, 女性比男性更多地激活了消极情绪(包括厌恶), 抑制了积极情绪(包括浪漫), 但这种性别差异却未在亲属关系上表现出来。实验2要求被试评定是否愿意帮助处于困境中的亲属、阿注/情侣、朋友和陌生人, 发现摩梭人比汉族人更愿意帮助亲属、朋友和陌生人, 但当对方是阿注/情侣时, 汉族人比摩梭人更愿意做出利他行为。汉族人对亲属与情侣的利他行为评定的差异小, 摩梭人对亲属与阿注的利他行为评定的差距大; 摩梭人对阿注与朋友的利他行为评定的差距小, 汉族人对情侣与朋友的利他行为评定的差距大。两个民族对阿注/情侣的利他行为存在着性别差异:汉族男性比汉族女性更愿意帮助情侣, 摩梭女性比摩梭男性更愿意帮助阿注。总的来看, 汉族人对待情侣更像对待亲属, 摩梭人对待阿注更像对待朋友。这表明, 阿注关系本质上是一种朋友关系, 与主流民族的夫妻关系有着本质的不同。

关键词: 摩梭人, 走访制, 阿注关系, 性吸引, 利他行为

Abstract:

Azhu is a Moso word which describes the sexual life pattern among the Moso people, a matriarchal ethnic group living along the border of Yunnan and Sichuan provinces. Azhu relationship refers to a kind of interpersonal relationship between friendship and kinship. A Moso’s azhu is similar to a Han’s lover, both terms indicating a romantic nature. The aim of the current study was to explore the essence of the azhu relationship under the sexual union from a psychological perspective. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the emotional responses and the behavioral tendencies of four different relationships (kin, azhu/lover, friend, and stranger), addressing distinct domains for which kinship is known (such as incest avoidance and altruistic behavior) by comparing the Moso people with the Han people.

Fifty-eight Moso people and 61 Han people participated in Experiment 1. A 2 Ethnicity (Moso vs. Han) × 2 Gender (Male vs. Female) × 4 Relationship Type (Kin, Azhu/Lover, Friend, Stranger) mixed design was used. The participants’ emotional responses were rated in a Likert scale after imaging sexual intercourse with the four heterosexual relationship types respectively. Results in Experiment 1 showed that there was a remarkable ethnicity difference in incest avoidance. The Han people expressed a much stronger sense of disgust than the Moso people to sexual behavior with kin, while there were no significant differences in the degree of disgust caused by sexual behavior with non-kin between the Hans and the Mosos. The emotional responses caused by imaging sexual behavior with special objects differed between the two genders. Female participants’ negative emotions (including disgust) were much stronger than those of male participants’, while those of positive emotions (including romantic) were exactly the opposite. However, this kind of gender differences was non-significant regarding kinship.
Fifty Moso people and 98 Han people participated in Experiment 2. The design was similar to Experiment 1. A Likert scale was used to evaluate the participants’ willingness to perform an altruistic behavior to help a kin, azhu/lover, friend, and stranger respectively. The results indicated that the Moso people were more willing to perform selfless altruistic behaviors than the Han people to a kin, a friend or a stranger. However, the situation was the opposite when the azhu/lover was in danger. The differences were smaller among the Han people when rating the altruistic behaviors between kins versus those between lovers, while the differences were larger among the Moso people when rating the altruistic behaviors between kins versus those between azhus; The differences were smaller among the Moso people when rating the altruistic behaviors between azhus versus those between friends, while the differences were larger among the Han people when rating the altruistic behaviors between lovers and those between friends. There was a significant gender difference between the Hans and the Mosos towards the willingness to help their azhu/lover. Han males had a stronger willingness to perform altruistic behaviors than Han females, whereas Moso females had a stronger willingness to help their azhu than Moso males.
In general, the results in the current study showed that the Han people treated their lovers as kins while Moso people treated their azhus as friends on the psychological and behavioral level. The nature of the azhu relationship under the sexual union in the Moso society was a kind of non-kin friendship, which was fundamentally different from the couple relationship of mainstream society.

Key words: the Moso, sexual union, azhu relationship, sexual attraction, altruistic behavior