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心理学报
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仕途“天花板”:公务员职业生涯高原结构、测量与效果
王忠军1;龙立荣2;刘丽丹3;黄小华4;贾文文1;李璐1;马红宇1
(1青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 华中师范大学心理学院暨湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室, 武汉430079)
(2华中科技大学管理学院, 武汉 430074) (3湖北中医药大学人文学院, 武汉 430065) (4江西省委统战部, 南昌 330006)
The Career Plateau of Chinese Public Servants: Construct, #br# Measurement and Its Psychological and Behavioral Influence
WANG Zhongjun1; LONG Lirong2; LIU Lidan3; HUANG Xiaohua4; JIA Wenwen1; LI Lu1; MA Hongyu1
(1 Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China)
(2 School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China)
(3 School of Humanities, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China)
(4 United Front Work Department, CPC Jiangxi Provincial Committee, Nanchang 330006, China)
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摘要 

中国公共组织中基层公务员的职业生涯高原是值得关注的重要问题。首先通过深度访谈和开放式问卷调查, 归纳出公务员职业生涯高原的典型特征与表现, 然后通过问卷调查获得三批处级以下公务员的数据。基于样本一(n = 279)的探索性因素分析发现, 公务员职业生涯高原为两维度的结构:升迁停滞、职位边缘化。基于样本二(n = 517)的验证性因素分析证实了公务员职业生涯高原两维度结构模型, 公务员职业生涯高原测量工具有较理想的信度和效度。基于样本三(n = 520)、样本四(n = 230)的研究表明, 职业生涯高原对公务员的组织承诺、职业倦怠、工作退缩行为均有不同程度的消极的影响, 但相对于升迁停滞, 公务员职业边缘化对于上述效果变量的影响更为显著。

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王忠军
龙立荣
刘丽丹
黄小华
贾文文
李璐
马红宇
关键词 公务员职业生涯高原升迁停滞职位边缘化    
Abstract

 

The career plateau is a serious problem for Chinese public servants, especially for those who at the lower level of public organizations, which occurs when an individual has limited vertical and horizontal career mobility. Since career plateau is of great influence on individual career development as well as organizational efficiency, this study investigated the career plateau phenomenon of Chinese public servants. Firstly, the typical features of Chinese public servants’ career plateau were found with the content analysis of data collected from 16 public servants, using structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires for other 43 public servants from various public organizations. Meanwhile, the initial items for Public Servants Career Plateau Questionnaire (PSCPQ) were also established.
Secondly, data collected from a sample of 279 public servants of diverse organizations was used to explore the CSCPQ’s conceptual construct, reliability and validity by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Thirdly, conducting Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) for data from another larger sample of 517 public servants, the validity and reliability of the PSCPQ was confirmed. Eventually, this study investigated the relationship between career plateau and civil servants’ occupational psychological and behavioral outcomes, such as organizational commitment, occupational burnout and withdrawal behavior in workplace by hierarchical multiple regression analysis for data of 520 public servants and another sample (n = 230) from three public organizations.
The research results indicated the career plateau of public servants was a two-dimension structure in Chinese public organizations context. The dimensions include the stagnation of promotionthe marginalization of position, which are completely different from the constructs of employees’ career plateau of enterprises found in previous studies. The Cronbach α coefficients of the two dimensions are all above 0.80 and show a steady and acceptable status in different samples. The Cronbach α coefficients of the entire PSCPQ is also above 0.87 in different sample. and These results showed that PSCPQ developed in this study had good psychometric reliability and high validity.
Furthermore, the results showed that after controlling demographic variables,the stagnation of promotion of public servants was significantly positive related to emotional burnout and cynicism, and was not related to organizational commitment, professional efficiency as well as withdrawal behavior at work. After controlling demographic variables, the positional marginalization of public servants was significantly negative related to organizational affective commitment, normative commitment and professional efficiency, and was positive related to organizational continuance commitment, emotional burnout, cynicism as well as withdrawal behavior. These results would be of enlightenment to the management practices and career development for public servants in Chinese public organizations. Finally, implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Key words public servants    career plateau    stagnation of promotion    marginalization of position
收稿日期: 2014-10-22      出版日期: 2015-11-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金重点项目(71232001)、教育部人文社科青年基金项目(14YJC630084)、湖北省社会科学基金项目(2012143)、华中师范大学中央高校基本科研业务费项目(CCNU14Z02015)资助。

通讯作者: 刘丽丹, E-mail: linda5933@163.com   
引用本文:   
王忠军;龙立荣;刘丽丹;黄小华;贾文文;李璐;马红宇. 仕途“天花板”:公务员职业生涯高原结构、测量与效果[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01379.
WANG Zhongjun; LONG Lirong; LIU Lidan; HUANG Xiaohua; JIA Wenwen; LI Lu; MA Hongyu. The Career Plateau of Chinese Public Servants: Construct, #br# Measurement and Its Psychological and Behavioral Influence. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(11): 1379-1394.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01379      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I11/1379
[1] 谢宝国,龙立荣. 职业生涯高原对员工工作满意度、组织承诺、离职意愿的影响[J]. , 2008, 40(08): 927-938.
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