ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (9): 1133-1142.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01133

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

老年人夫妻依恋的测量及与一般依恋的关系

王大华1;杨小洋2;王岩1;Richard B. Miller3   

  1. (1北京师范大学发展心理研究所, 北京 100875) (2中山大学心理学系, 广州 510275)
    (3 Brigham Young University, Utah, USA)
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-12 出版日期:2015-09-25 发布日期:2015-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 王大华, E-mail: wangdahua@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社科重点研究基地重大项目(13JJD190001)资助。

The Assessment of Marital Attachment and Its Relationship with General Attachment among Older Adults

WANG Dahua1; YANG Xiaoyang2; WANG Yan1; Richard B. Miller3   

  1. (1 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
    (2 Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China) (3 Brigham Young University, Utah, USA)
  • Received:2014-05-12 Online:2015-09-25 Published:2015-09-25
  • Contact: WANG Dahua, E-mail: wangdahua@bnu.edu.cn

摘要:

通过对697名60岁以上、配偶健在的老年人进行调查, 对《老年人夫妻依恋问卷》进行修订及信效度的检验, 并应用该问卷对老年人的夫妻依恋风格进行划分, 考察夫妻依恋风格与一般依恋之间的吻合程度。结果显示修订后的《老年人夫妻依恋问卷》具有稳定的三维度结构以及良好的信效度; 聚类分析显示老年人夫妻依恋以安全型和专注型为主, 而一般依恋以安全型和冷漠型居多。在老年人中仅有39.9%的个体具有相同类型的夫妻依恋与一般依恋, 呈现出较低的一致性。

关键词: 夫妻依恋, 一般依恋, 老年人夫妻依恋问卷, 依恋风格, 老年

Abstract:

 

According to attachment theory, during interactions with their caregivers infants build their “internal working models”, which shape their perception and reflection of social information in their future life. Collins and Read (1994) propose a hierarchical model to illustrate adults’ multiple attachment models and the differences between the general attachment model and the relationship-specific attachment model. Because marital relationships play an important role in later life, an investigation of older adults’ marital attachment and its relationship with the general attachment formed during childhood would increase the understanding of life-span development of attachment. The Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale (OAMAS) was recently developed targeting both the specific relationship, as well as the specific age period, and the developers have demonstrated its applicability. However, more evidence is needed using different samples to prove its reliability and validity. As a result, the current study aimed, firstly, at validating the scale, and, secondly, at investigating the association between marital attachment and general attachment among older adults.
A total of 697 older adults, over 60 years old, dwelling in communities in Beijing participated in the current study. The participants completed the Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale (Zhai, et al., 2010), Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew &Horowitz, 1991), Marital Satisfaction subscale (Olson, Fournier, & Druckman, 1983), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (Burke, Roccaforte, & Wengel, 1991) and the Clock Drawing Test. After 86 of them with either dementia or depression were excluded, the final valid sample size was 611 participants. The cases were divided randomly into two subsets, one for exploratory factor analysis, and the other for confirmatory factor analysis. Cluster analysis and cross-tab analysis were then conducted on the total data. The SPSS 17.0 and Mplus 7.0 were used for analysis.
The main findings were as follows: (1) the final 15-item revised OAMAS showed a three-dimensional construct of attachment, namely anxiety, avoidance, and security; (2) the revised OAMAS exhibited acceptable reliability and good criterion-related validity; (3) the older adults’ marital attachment could be clustered into four types, including secure, preoccupied, dismissing, and fearful. The secure and the preoccupied comprised the major marital attachment style with 43.9% and 22.9%, respectively; (4) with regard to general attachment, the majority included the secure and dismissing types; and (5) about 39.9% of the total sample presented identical attachment types between marital relationship and general relationship.

These results indicated that the three dimensioned Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale could be a desired measure in studies concerning marital attachment among older adults. In addition, general attachment shaped in early life might not robustly predict the specified attachment in such as marital relationship. From a developmental viewpoint, the moderate consistency between marital and general attachment styles in later life also suggested that the attachment is a contextual property, instead of a stable trait.

Key words: