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心理学报
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权力的概念隐喻表征:来自大小与颜色隐喻的证据
杨惠兰;何先友;赵雪汝;张维
(华南师范大学心理应用研究中心/心理学院, 广州 510631)
Multiple Metaphorical Representations of Power: Evidence from Size and Color
YANG Huilan; HE Xiayou; ZHAO Xueru; ZHANG Wei
(Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
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摘要 

采用Stroop和内隐联想范式, 从多重隐喻角度探讨中国文化背景下权力的大小隐喻及颜色隐喻, 包括2个实验。实验1探讨汉语中权力概念能否启动大小隐喻表征。实验1a发现在高权力用大号字体、低权力用小号字体呈现时被试的反应时更短; 实验1b发现被试进行高权力与大方块属性词联结、低权力与小方块属性词联结的反应时更短; 实验2探讨汉语中权力概念能否启动颜色隐喻表征。实验2a发现高权力用金色、低权力用灰色呈现时被试的反应时更短; 实验2b发现被试进行高权力与金色方块属性词联结、低权力与灰色方块的属性词联结的反应时更短。该研究结果表明:在Stroop和内隐联想范式中, 抽象的权力概念可以通过大小、颜色进行隐喻表征。中国文化背景下人们倾向于将高权力用大、金色进行隐喻表征, 而将低权力用小、灰色进行隐喻表征。

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杨惠兰
何先友
赵雪汝
张维
关键词 权力大小隐喻颜色隐喻具身认知概念隐喻理论    
Abstract

How human beings represent abstractions is an important issue in cognitive psychology. The embodied cognition model proposes that cognition is based on body; individuals’ abstract concepts can be associated with sensorimotor processes. Two origins for embodied cognition theory have been posited: Perceptual Symbol Theory (PPS) and Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT). Perceptual Symbol Systems assumes that sensory-motor experiences are involved in the process of mental representation of concepts. Conceptual Metaphor Theory describes embodied effects wherein sensation influences conceptual processing. In this framework, the essence of metaphor is that people use familiar and specific experiences to construct new abstract concepts, and our research is based on this theory. Many previous studies found that the abstract concept of “power” is embodied within space, weight or size, but few studies have examined multiple metaphors of power. The present study is comprised of four experiments with undergraduates to test whether the mental representation of power is associated with size and color. Experiment 1a used the Stroop task and Experiment 1b used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) paradigm to explore whether power is mentally represented by size in Chinese culture. Different font sizes (large/small) were employed in experiment 1a to present a power-related word (powerful/powerless), and participants were asked to decide whether the stimulus was powerful or powerless. By assessing automatic associations of power with big or small squares, we designed an IAT paradigm in Experiment 1b to explore the implicit effect of the “power-size” bias. Experiment 2a used the Stroop Task and Experiment 2b used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) paradigm to explore whether power is mentally represented with color in Chinese culture. Experiment 2a used different colors (gold/grey) to present the power-related word (powerful/powerless) and participants were asked to decide whether the stimulus was powerful or powerless, whereas in Experiment 2b the IAT paradigm was used to test the implicit effect of “power-color” bias by assessing automatic associations of power with gold or grey squares. Mixed-factorial ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. The results of Experiment 1a showed a significant Stroop effect. When powerful words were presented in large font and powerless words presented in small font, reaction time was significantly reduced. Experiment 1b indicated that the mean reaction time was significantly shorter in the compatible test than in the incompatible test, with participants tending to associate powerful words with the large square and powerless words with the small square. Experiment 2a also showed a significant Stroop effect. When powerful words were presented in gold and powerless words presented in grey color, reaction time was significantly reduced. In Experiment 2b, the results indicated that the mean reaction time was significantly shorter in the compatible test than in the incompatible test, in which participants tended to associate powerful words with the gold square and powerless words with the grey square. In sum, the results suggest that the mental representation of power is associated with size and color cues in Chinese culture. Chinese participants tend to associate powerful words with the large font and gold color, and associate powerless words with the small font and grey color. Objective differences, language, and culture create ecology in which power and size or color is correlated. Based on this, we argue that Chinese developed a strong mental association between size and color cues with power.

Key wordspower    size metaphor    color metaphor    embodiment cognition    Conceptual Metaphor Theory
收稿日期: 2015-03-04      出版日期: 2015-07-25
通讯作者: 何先友, E-mail: xianyouhe@163.com   
引用本文:   
杨惠兰;何先友;赵雪汝;张维. 权力的概念隐喻表征:来自大小与颜色隐喻的证据[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00939.
YANG Huilan; HE Xiayou; ZHAO Xueru; ZHANG Wei. Multiple Metaphorical Representations of Power: Evidence from Size and Color. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(7): 939-949.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00939      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I7/939
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