ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (6): 774-786.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00774

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

幼儿对威胁性刺激蛇的注意觉察:来自眼动证据

王福兴1;李文静1;颜志强2;段朝辉1;李卉3   

  1. (1华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079) (2北京大学心理学系, 北京 100871) (3天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-12 出版日期:2015-06-25 发布日期:2015-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 王福兴, E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金青年项目(#31300864)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(#31170979)、2012年大学生创新实验计划项目“恐惧还是偏好?儿童对危险刺激的优先加工”和华中师范大学教学研究项目(#201115)资助。

Children’s Attention Detection to Snakes: Evidence from Eye Movements

WANG Fuxing1; LI Wenjing1; YAN Zhiqiang2; DUAN Zhaohui1; LI Hui3   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China) (3 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China)
  • Received:2014-06-12 Online:2015-06-25 Published:2015-06-25
  • Contact: WANG Fuxing, E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

摘要:

前人研究发现相对于中性刺激花, 没有经验的婴幼儿会对威胁性刺激蛇产生更快的觉察反应。研究选取4~6岁幼儿和成人被试, 改进了刺激材料呈现范式和线画的刺激材料, 采用3×3刺激矩阵呈现的方式, 利用眼动仪记录被试的视觉搜索过程, 探索威胁性刺激蛇是否被更快注意定向、作为干扰刺激的蛇是否同样能被更快觉察, 以及蛇的特殊外形是否在快速觉察中具有重要作用。实验1发现, 相对于目标物花, 成人和幼儿对蛇的首次注视到达时间更短, 注视到目标前的注视点个数更少, 首次注视的时间更短。实验2采用线画的方式去除了刺激材料的色彩和纹理, 只保留了蛇蜿蜒的外形, 结果发现儿童和成人仍然以更短的注视到达时间、更少注视次数注意到蛇, 对蛇的首次注视时间更短。此外, 对干扰物分析发现, 蛇作为干扰物(花为目标物)仍然表现出更快注意定向。两个实验对比发现, 被试对彩色、真实蛇的注视快于线画的蛇。结论认为, 即使是对蛇具有较少经验的幼儿, 也表现出了对蛇的快速注意偏向; 蛇的色彩和纹理会促进蛇的快速觉察; 蛇的低水平知觉特征(蜿蜒外形)确实对蛇的注意觉察具有重要作用。

关键词: 蛇, 威胁性刺激, 幼儿, 觉察, 眼动

Abstract:

Previous research shows that preschool children detect snakes quickly than non-threating stimuli (e.g. flowers). In this study, we used eye tracking technology to provide direct evidences about the superior detection about threat-relevant stimuli. Two experiments were designed to testify whether the snakes would be fixated faster and quickly by preschool children and adults. In addition, we also used line drawing snakes and flowers as stimuli to control the shape of snakes and to testify the perceptual template hypothesis. In experiment 1, sixteen 4- to 6-year-old preschool children and 22 undergraduates were recruited as participants. A revised 3 × 3 matrices of color photographs of threat-relevant (snakes) and threat-irrelevant (flowers) stimuli were presented to both preschool children and adults. All participants were asked to find the threat target (snake) among seven non-threat distractors (flowers) and vice versa. Sixteen matrices with 8 pictures (1 target and 7 distractors) were presented to the participants. We changed the standard visual search task that did not present stimuli in the middle of the 3 × 3 matrices to control the central location effect and make the procedure appropriate for eye tracking calibration. It’s a 2 (age: children, adults)× 2 (target: snake, flower) mixed design, and age was the between subject variable. In experiment 2, we improved the stimuli with line drawings to pop out the continuous curvilinear contour of snakes. The design, presentation method was the same as experiment 1. In two experiments, Tobii T120 Eye tracker was used to record the viewing behaviors of adults and children. The results of experiment 1 indicated that both the preschool children and adults fixated snakes faster and with less fixation counts than flowers, and their first fixation duration was shorter on snakes than flowers. Adults performed faster fixation, much less fixation counts than children. As distractors (flower was target), snakes were also fixated quickly than flowers (snake was target). In experiment 2, the same results were found that both children and adults located line drawing snakes quicker than line drawing flowers. And the first fixation duration to snakes were much shorter than flowers. Adults still fixated faster than children. For the snakes as distractors, we found the same results as experiment 1. Compared to the fixations of the line drawing snakes without color and pattern in experiment 2, real and colorful snakes in experiment 1 were fixated faster. The real and colorful snakes were detected faster and with less fixation counts before they were located as distractors. In conclusion, even preschool children who have little snake experience also show faster attention orienting and shorter attention holding. Based on the eye movements evidences, the continuous curvilinear shape plays an important role in the snake relevant threat detection. The eye fixations of line drawing snakes provide direct evidence to the perceptual template theory. To be a special reptile, the color, patterns can boost the quick detection.

Key words: snakes, threat-relevant stimuli, preschool children, detection, eye movements