ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (4): 439-454.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00439

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

熟练粤-普双言者的双言认知控制机制 ——来自双任务切换范式的行为研究证据

刘晓瑜;何朝丹;陈俊;邓沁丽   

  1. (华南师范大学心理应用研究中心/心理学院, 广州 510631)
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-05 出版日期:2015-04-25 发布日期:2015-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈俊, E-mail: chenjunyrh@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    全国教育科学“十二五”规划2012年度教育部重点课题(项目号:DBA120177)以及广东省教育科学研究项目2012JK235资助。亦为华南师范大学心理学院研究生科研创新基金资助项目阶段性成果。

The Bilingual Cognitive Control Mechanism of Highly Proficient Cantonese-Mandarin Speakers: Evidence from A Dual-task Switching Paradigm

LIU Xiaoyu; HE Chaodan; CHEN Jun; DENG Qinli   

  1. (Center for Studies of Psychological Application, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
  • Received:2014-05-05 Online:2015-04-25 Published:2015-04-25
  • Contact: CHEN Jun, E-mail: chenjunyrh@163.com

摘要:

实验采用双任务切换范式, 考察熟练粤-普双言被试在简单情境和混合情境下任务切换和语码切换的代价模式。实验1在语音相似条件下, 考察了粤-普双言者语码切换代价与任务切换代价; 实验2在语音不相似条件下, 探讨粤-普双言者语码切换代价与任务切换代价。结果发现, 不同语音条件下, 熟练粤语-普通话双言者出现对称的语码切换代价, 切换过程受到语音相似性的影响, 但是语码切换代价却没有受到影响, 支持了特定语言选择假设。无论在何种语音条件下, 任务切换代价模式和语码切换代价模式都是一致的, 出现对称的切换代价, 但两种切换代价相关不显著。从定性和定量结果来看, 双言认知控制机制与一般认知控制机制有密切关系, 但双言认知控制机制不完全附属于一般认知控制机制, 双言认知控制机制可能存在一部分加工独立于一般认知控制。

关键词: 双言者, 语码切换, 切换代价, 认知控制

Abstract:

Recent studies have been focused on the relationship between bilingual cognitive control in language switching and general cognitive control in task-switching. So far, however, evidences for whether the two mechanisms are same or not are still controversial. Among which, two major arguments have been achieved: (1) bilingual cognitive control works out as a set of processes which are fully subsidiary to the general cognitive control mechanism; (2) the bilingual cognitive control in language-switching is compulsory independent from general cognitive control in task-switching. To investigate the bilingual cognitive control mechanism of highly proficient Cantonese-Mandarin speakers and its relationship with the general cognitive control in task-switching, a dual-task switching paradigm was conducted in two experiments, including letters-digital classification task and picture naming task in simple and mixed contexts. Besides, phonological similarity of Cantonese and Mandarin were specifically controlled in the two experiments to ascertain sources of the switch cost in bilingual performance. 24 undergraduates who are highly proficient Cantonese-Mandarin speakers participated in the two experiments. They were asked to classify letters or digits in Cantonese in letters-digital classification task and name the picture in Mandarin or Cantonese according to which half of the screen the stimuli would appear. Specifically, pictures in experiment 1 shared high phonological similarity between Cantonese and Mandarin; while pictures in experiment 2 shared low phonological similarity. All the participants were tested individually on computers during the whole experiment. Reaction time and error rates were analyzed by subject and item variance. In Experiment 1, the data showed that the reaction time was shorter and the error rates were lower in non-switch condition in both tasks. Participants showed a symmetric code switching cost in picture naming task and symmetric task switching cost in letters-digital classification task, but no significant correlations was found between switch costs in linguistic and non-linguistic switching tasks. In Experiment 2, the data revealed a typical language switching cost as well as same pattern of the switch costs in the linguistic and non-linguistic switching. Besides, no significantly correlation was found in switch costs of the two tasks. Under different phonological conditions, high proficient Mandarin-Cantonese bilingual showed a symmetric code switching cost in picture naming task, with shorter reaction time in high phonological similarity than low phonological similarity. This indicated that switching process might be modulated by the phonological similarity, however code-switching cost is not affected. No matter what phonological conditions were, they showed symmetric task switching cost, which suggested that the pattern of task switch cost might be similar or same to that of code switch cost. The data of the two experiments suggested that the patterns of the switch costs in the linguistic and non-linguistic switching tasks appeared to be similar or same, though switch costs of the two tasks were not significantly correlated. Based on the qualitative and quantitative results, the study indicated that language cognitive control mechanisms of high proficient Mandarin-Cantonese bilingual are closely related, yet not completely subsidiary to the general cognitive control mechanism. Meanwhile, as evidences revealed that phonological similarity did not exert any significant effect on the language switching cost, the study supposed that the switching cost might not come from the word-recognition system itself.

Key words: bilingual, language switching, switch cost, cognitive control