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心理学报
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非条件刺激降低再评估对条件性恐惧消退的影响
杜娟;曾祥星;郑希付;庄楚群
(华南师范大学心理学院, 广州 510631)
The Impact of Unconditioned Stimulus Devaluation on Conditional Fear Extinction
DU Juan; ZENG Xiangxing; ZHENG Xifu; ZHUANG Chuqun
(School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
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摘要 

诸多情绪障碍治疗的关键在于促进条件性恐惧反应的消退, 研究证明非条件刺激再评估能够引起恐惧反应的变化。本研究将非条件刺激降低再评估范式应用于消退训练, 以主观预期值、皮电反应作为恐惧反应指标, 考察恐惧习得后非条件刺激强度降低对条件性恐惧消退的影响, 并运用评价性条件作用探讨非条件刺激再评估的作用机制。结果表明:在消退阶段, 降低组对条件刺激的皮电反应显著低于控制组。同时评价性条件作用结果显示:经过非条件刺激再评估, 降低组较控制组对条件刺激的评价更为正性。说明非条件刺激降低再评估有效改变条件刺激的负性效价, 降低个体的恐惧反应、促进恐惧消退。

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杜娟
曾祥星
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关键词 恐惧消退非条件刺激降低再评估评价性条件作用    
Abstract

Unconditioned stimulus (US) devaluation has been put forward as an effective measure to decrease fear response. Previous studies mostly focused on investigating the impact of US devaluation in the test phase after fear acquisition. As widely recognized, exposure therapy based on the theory of extinction training is a frequently used method for the treatment of mental disorders. Hence, we made an attempt to implement this program in the extinction training to examine if it could improve the therapeutic effect. In addition, to further understand the mechanisms of US devaluation, evaluative conditioning was explored. An experiment was designed to test the impact of reduction in US intensity on conditioned fear extinction. All participants were subjected to a fear conditioning experiment consisted of acquisition, US devaluation and extinction phases while subjective US-expectancy and skin conductance response (SCR)were rated online. In the experiment, the intensity of US was decreased after acquisition for one group (devaluation) and held constant for another group (control). Two simple geometrical figures served as CS+ and CS?, and a 1-sec female vocal stimulus (i.e., scream) as US. Each CS+ was paired with a US during the acquisition phase, and in the subsequent devaluation phrase, subjects were only exposed to the intensity-changed US for three times. To measure evaluative conditioning, participants were required to rate CS-valence at the end of each conditioning phase. The results show that US-expectancy to CS+ was not significantly different between two groups, which seemed to reflect a similar mode of fear extinction. However, the SCR to CS+ of devaluation groupwas significantly lower than that of control group, suggesting an efficient promoted process of fear extinction by US revaluation. The effect of US devaluation was also found in evaluative conditioning. Compared to control group, devaluation group showed more positive valence ratings for CS+. The results suggest that US devaluation did promote the extinction according to the SCR. Through the US devaluation, the explicit awareness of CS-US bond did not change; but the SCR, representing a procedural fear memory formed by implicit learning, had been influenced, which declared a separation between different fear response indexes. From the evaluating conditioning results, we inferred that US might have served as a transporter, to transform the negative valence to CS. After devaluation, individuals might restate the cognition of CS fear valence, leading to the promotion of extinction. The results suggest that the modulation of US intensity may provide a new perspective for exposure therapy. Based on relevant literature review, the knowledge of the internal mechanisms of US devaluation that influence the conditioned fear extinction has acquired great advance. In the future, the treatment on mental disorders should be more focused on the behavioral therapy based on extinction training.

Key wordsfear extinction    unconditioned stimulus devaluation    evaluative conditioning
收稿日期: 2014-04-16      出版日期: 2015-03-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(31371057), 幸福广州心理服务与辅导基地资助。

通讯作者: 郑希付, E-mail: zhengxf@scnu.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
杜娟;曾祥星;郑希付;庄楚群. 非条件刺激降低再评估对条件性恐惧消退的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00344.
DU Juan; ZENG Xiangxing; ZHENG Xifu; ZHUANG Chuqun. The Impact of Unconditioned Stimulus Devaluation on Conditional Fear Extinction. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(3): 344-352.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00344      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I3/344
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[2] 张予贺;金艳;郑希付;闫柯;周晌昀. 状态焦虑对条件恐惧习得和消退的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2014, 46(3): 396-404.
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