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心理学报
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语言标签和自我关联对新颖客体类别知觉的影响
刘思耘;孟健欣
(青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室; 华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079)
The Influence of Language Labels and Self-Reference on New Object Categorical Perception
LIU Siyun; MENG Jianxin
(Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 China)
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摘要 

类别知觉(Categorical perception)是人类最基本的认知活动之一, 探讨语言对类别知觉的影响是心理语言学领域的热门话题之一。在这个研究的3个实验中, 分别在高、低不同的语言标签表征强度下、高、低不同的客体自我关联程度下观察新颖客体类别知觉的过程。研究发现, 语言标签表征程度的增强可促进新颖客体类别知觉的右视野优势效应; 客体与自我关联程度的提高会促进左、右视野的类别知觉效应; 语言标签的表征程度和客体与自我关联程度同时增强时, 语言标签的作用依旧表现出来, 但与自我关联的影响产生权衡分配, 且其影响力并不足以产生右视野优势效应。

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刘思耘
孟健欣
关键词 类别知觉语言标签自我关联右视野优势效应    
Abstract

Categorical perception is one of the most basic cognitive processes of human beings. When humans process incoming information, categorization help them further clarify and simplify the sophisticated inputs. The categorical perception effect refers to the phenomenon that individuals will respond faster or more accurately when discriminating two stimuli that cross a category boundary than when discriminating two stimuli from the same category, despite between- and within-category stimuli being equated in distance (Bornstein & Korda, 1984). However, inconsistent evidence has been obtained from previous studies on how language would influence categorical perception. The language label theory suggested that the language label is a cue that helps individuals to categorize information unconsciously and automatically; whereas perceptual feature theory suggested that categorical perception is based on a pure perceptual process, which arises from life experiences that eventually changes the mappings of perceptual neurons. The current study systematically investigates how language labels would interact with self-reference factor to play a mutual role on new object categorical perception. The hypothesis of this study is that language labels are not the only important factors that would influence categorical perception, other social or personality factors may also play a role, but it is not sure whether language labels would play a more important role. In this study, three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, a 2 (language label learning times: more vs. less) ´ 2 (object category: between vs. within) ´ 2 (visual field: left vs. right) mixed experiment was designed, and it is found that only the participants who have learned the labels for more times showed a significant right visual field advantage effect. In Experiment 2, a 2 (object self-reference connection: tight vs. loose) × 2 (object category: between vs. within) × 2 (visual field: left vs. right) mixed experiment was designed. This time, all the participants learned the language labels for only twice. As a result, it is found that only the participants who had built a tight self-reference connection with the new object revealed a significant categorical perception effect, however, on both left- and right-visual fields. Furthermore, higher level of self-reference made the participants show a better discriminating ability for between-category objects, but not for within-category objects. In Experiment 3, a 2 (object self-reference connection: tight vs. loose) × 2 (object category: between vs. within) × 2 (visual field: left vs. right) mixed experiment was designed. This time all the participants learned the language labels for seven times. As a result, it is found that under higher level representation of language labels, both language label and the self-reference play a role on categorical perception. In summary, this study revealed an important and complicated role of language labels on categorical perception, and a nonetheless very important influence of self-reference as well.

Key wordscategorical perception    language label    self-reference    right visual field advantage effect
收稿日期: 2014-04-16      出版日期: 2015-03-25
基金资助:

中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(项目号:CCNU14A02015), 教育部人文社科项目(13YJA190005)。

通讯作者: 刘思耘, E-mail: liusy@mail.ccnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
刘思耘;孟健欣. 语言标签和自我关联对新颖客体类别知觉的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00285.
LIU Siyun; MENG Jianxin. The Influence of Language Labels and Self-Reference on New Object Categorical Perception. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(3): 285-299.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00285      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I3/285
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