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心理学报
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邻近效应对多媒体学习中图文整合的影响:线索的作用
王福兴;段朝辉;周宗奎;陈珺
(青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室; 华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079)
The Spatial Contiguity Effect in Multimedia Learning: The Role of Cueing
WANG Fuxing; DUAN Zhaohui; ZHOU Zongkui; CHEN Jun
(Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China)
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摘要 

在多媒体学习中图文排列的邻近或远离会影响学习的效果。本研究操纵了多媒体呈现的图文排列位置, 采用颜色作为线索引导注意, 探讨了线索有无和图片-文字的空间位置对多媒体学习图文整合的影响。结果发现:图文邻近呈现时的保持测验和迁移测验成绩好于图文远离呈现, 图文邻近呈现时学习者对关键兴趣区的进出次数更多, 体现出以文字为导向的阅读模式。线索并没有单独影响学习成绩和注意分配; 但结合图文位置后, 发现有线索时图文邻近学习材料的注视次数、进出关键兴趣区的次数显著多于图文远离。研究认为:图文的邻近效应不仅提高学习者对知识的识记和理解, 同时也影响了学习者的注意分配过程, 图文邻近呈现有助于图片和文本信息的注意联结和知识整合; 线索能使邻近效应得到凸显, 更好地促进图文信息的注视加工, 但没有改进学习的效果。

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王福兴
段朝辉
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陈珺
关键词 邻近效应线索眼动图文整合    
Abstract

Text and illustrations integrated in spatial distribution could be helpful for learners’ performance during multimedia learning. In addition, recent studies showed that cues, e.g. highlighting with color, arrows, bold typeface, could guide learner’s attention and improve their learning outcomes. The researchers speculate that the picture and text close to each other can shorten the visual search time and reduce the cognitive load, thereby enhancing the learning results. Previous studies also showed that adding cues to the learning materials could guide the learners’ attention, promoted the organization and integration of the new learning knowledge. But what are the specific processes of the contiguity effect? Whether the changes of the picture-text’s location and adding cues would affect the allocation of attention? In this study, we expected that the contiguity effects and cueing would affect the learners' attention allocation, and then influence the memory tests. Consequently, the integrated text and pictures with cues would have more fixation counts and longer dwell time on the task related area, and higher scores in the retention test and transfer test. In this study, fifty one college students were recruited from Central China Normal University as the participants with prior knowledge questionnaire. And a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation was used as the experiment material. Highlighting red color on text and pictures were manipulated as cues. First of all, a demographic questionnaire including a prior knowledge questionnaire would be sent to all of the prospective participants who want to participate in the experiment. The student who could be the participants had been measured by the prior knowledge questionnaire, to ensure they knew little about the lightning knowledge. After that they were randomized into four groups. The four groups were as follows: the integrated text picture with cues, the integrated text picture without cues; the split text picture with cues; the split text picture without cues. All participants would watch the animation and learn those materials during the experiment. Eyelink 1000 was used to record their eye data. After the eye tracking data collection, they would take retention test and transfer test to test what they had learned. The results showed that the students who learned the text pictures integrated had higher scores than the text picture split group on the retention test and transfer test. And the integrated group had more run counts and longer first fixation time on the task related area (red color highlighting cues) than the split group. Besides that, as to the text, the integrated group also had longer dwell time and more fixation counts, manifested a text-oriented reading mode. Although the main effect of cues were not significant on the retention, transfer tests and eye-movement data, the interaction effect between cues and picture-text location was significant. The integrated group had more fixation counts and more run counts on the task related area when the text and pictures were cued with red color. In addition, the four groups have no difference over their gender, age, the prior knowledge. In sum, these results indicated that the contiguity effects can not only improve learners’ memorizing and understanding, but also help to allocate the attention or attention shifting during multimedia learning with the moment to moment recording. The text close to the picture can be beneficial to integrate and memorizing the information between pictures and text. What’s more, cues can make visual search process much shorter and easier when the text and illustrations are contiguous in space.

Key wordscontiguity effect    cueing    eye movements    picture-text integration
收稿日期: 2014-04-11      出版日期: 2015-02-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金青年项目“经验对多媒体学习中图-文整合过程的影响” (# 31300864)和青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室开放课题(# 2012B07)资助。

通讯作者: 周宗奎, E-mail: zhouzk@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; 王福兴, E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
王福兴;段朝辉;周宗奎;陈珺. 邻近效应对多媒体学习中图文整合的影响:线索的作用[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00224.
WANG Fuxing; DUAN Zhaohui; ZHOU Zongkui; CHEN Jun. The Spatial Contiguity Effect in Multimedia Learning: The Role of Cueing. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(2): 224-233.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00224      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I2/224
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